Comparative Veterinary Anatomy

Faculty and Staff Information
  1. Course Director: Tom A. Aire, DVM, PhD, FCVSN, FAS Professor.
    Tel: 444 - 4175 Ext. 3327
  2. Office Location: Marion Hall, Lower True Blue [Veterinary Office Building (SGU campus map: # 47)]
  3. Office Hours: by email
  4. Other faculty members: Dr. E. Rennie, DVM, MSc., Associate Professor,, [Ext. 3329]; Dr. Crissy-Ann Harrylal, BSc, DVM, Instructor, [Ext. 3326]
  5. Staff member names, credentials, title, email address is applicable
    1. Mr. Matthew Charles, Senior Technician; Ext. 3469;
    2. Mr. Curtis Hopkins, Technician; Ext. 3469;
Course Location

Hybrid Teaching – both on-campus and online [if operative] lecture and laboratory segments of the course will employ SAKAI Resources --- Zoom, Panopto, Lessons, Assignments, Announcements, etc.,

Required Resources

Required Textbooks and course handouts:

‘Textbook of Veterinary Anatomy’, by Dyce, KM, Sack, WO and Wensing, CJG. W.  B. Saunders’

Required Laboratory Guides:

Ruminants: ‘Guide to Ruminant Anatomy on the Dissection of the goat’, by P. D. Garret. Iowa University Press; videos of prosections

Swine: Laboratory handout notes and dissection slides. videos of prosections Equine: “Horse Dissection Guide by M. S. A. Kumar [on SAKAI]; slides of equine dissection; videos of prosections---------------------------- on SAKAI

Avian: Laboratory handout notes and video of a prosected specimen

Piscean: Video of prosected specimens

Recommended Resources

(texts, journal articles, course notes, laptop specs like functional microphone, camera, etc.)


  1. Students with disabilities who need accommodations should contact Student Accessibility and Accommodations Services (SAAS), located in the Dean of Students Office.
  2. Information can be found at
Other Requirements

Laptops are as specified in the Students’ Handbook and the Examinations Services

Course Rationale

ANPH 503 is comparative, based on regional anatomy, and emphasizes unique structural features, with particular reference to important applied, regional, anatomy of the horse, ruminants (including the bovine, ovine and caprine species), pig, as well as avian and piscean (fish) species.

Much of detailed basic anatomy (considered to be covered in Veterinary Anatomy I) will be omitted while areas of clinical importance are accorded due emphasis. References to clinical cases will be made, where appropriate, to underscore the importance of a thorough knowledge of the areas under study. Both the lecture and laboratory components of this course constitute the material from which examination questions shall be drawn.

Course Learning Outcomes

This course consolidates and complements the functional anatomy of the animal body as related to veterinary medicine, and ensures that the student is able to recognize structural and unique differences between species of animals of veterinary importance. Students are exposed to regional anatomical areas, and are aware of the particular relevance and importance of appropriate areas, organs and structures to applied/clinical veterinary activities (such as diagnostic imaging, general diagnosis requiring conformational and topographical evaluation, surgery, etc.), thus preparing them for the third and other years of the DVM degree program. Students shall also be able to relate the nervous system of the animals to neurological deficits, generally. This course also exposes students to aspects of professionalism, as well as collegial and mutually beneficial group activities, especially during dissection and palpation sessions.

The ANPH 503 course is subsequent to the ANPH 506 (canine and feline anatomy) course, and is responsible for the basic and comparative anatomy of ungulate (equine, ruminant, porcine), avian, and piscine species, as well as relevant and appropriate clinical/applied anatomical features. At the end of the course students shall be able to,

  1. describe and identify the main morphological features of all body regions of the ungulate (equine, ruminant, porcine), avian and piscine species,
  2. apply the acquired anatomy knowledge in evaluating normal structure and form of the ungulate, avian, and piscine species,
  3. describe and identify congenital deformities/abnormalities and underdevelopment and their effect on normal form and function,
  4. relate acquired structural changes and deficits to anatomical conformation and function,
  5. emphasize those areas and structures which are of practical/clinical importance, i.p. where applied to the fields of radiology, surgery, neurology, and internal medicine,
  6. demonstrate the manual skills necessary to incise the skin and open hollow organs, remove connective tissue, identify various types of tissues; manipulate one segment of the body relative to another, e.g. limb segments at joints, and to delineate on the surface of the animal various relative positions of organs and structures in topographic anatomy,
  7. function constructively in a team and demonstrate responsibility for the teams' performance,
  8. demonstrate professional behavior in relation to their peers, as well as staff and faculty members.
Lesson Learning Outcomes

See under “SYLLABUS” on SAKAI

Alignment of Course Learning Outcomes with Program Learning Outcomes
  1. Cutaneous appendages of, and vertebral column and its attachments in, ungulates: identify tissue layers of the skin, its appendages, cutaneous muscles; identify regions of the vertebral column and their peculiarities in various species
  2. Fascia and cutaneous muscles: identify, describe, distinguish, explain structure and function of cutaneous muscles
  3. The thorax: identify species variability of structure and function, and organ disposition
  4. The thoracic limb: identify, explain, compare and distinguish important morphological features
  5. The abdomen and mamma: identify, explain, and compare structure and function between species
  6. The pelvis and hind-limb: identify, explain, compare and distinguish structure and function between species
  7. The head: identify and explain the main and clinically relevant morphological and functional differences between species
  8. Avian anatomy: identify and explain main adaptational, morphological, functional and clinically relevant features in birds
  9. Piscean anatomy: identify and explain main adaptational, morphological, functional and clinically relevant features in fishes.

Program Learning Objectives:

1. Recall, understand, and adequately utilize multidisciplinary knowledge of basic structures and functions of healthy animals.

4. Explain the relationship between disease processes and clinical signs.

6. Apply multidisciplinary scientific knowledge to clinical situations, and understand evidence-based veterinary medicine.

7. Evaluate and analyze normal versus abnormal animal behavior.

Course Learning Outcome

SGUSVM Program Learning Outcome





PLO 1, PLO 4, PLO 6, PLO 7

PLO 1, PLO 4, PLO 6, PLO 7

PLO 1, PLO 4, PLO 6, PLO 7

PLO 1, PLO 4, PLO 6, PLO 7

PLO 1, PLO 4, PLO 6, PLO 7



PLO 1, PLO 4, PLO 6, PLO 7

PLO 1, PLO 4, PLO 6, PLO 7

PLO 1, PLO 4, PLO 6, PLO 7

PLO 1, PLO 4, PLO 6, PLO 7

Course Schedule

SEE “LECTURE AND LABORATORY SCHEDULE” on ‘SYLLABUS’. This is, at best, a guide; it is not cast in stone, especially in these times of the COVID-19 pandemic!

Grading and Assessment Policy


Grading scale


Percentage score

Grade Point













C 69.5-74.49  2
D+ 64.5-69.49 1.5
D 59.5-64.49 1
F <59.49 0

ExamSoft infringements

“A grade reduction of 5-10% will be applied to that exam if students do not observe the following parameters during exams monitored online:

  1. Avoid talking out loud.
  2. Avoid looking away from the monitor.
  3. Avoid having distractions (animals, people) in or walking through the room or making noise during the exam.
  4. Check that your webcam is recording your full face at all times with adequate lighting.”
  5. Examinations and quizzes

Theory or written examinations and quizzes will be based mainly on “multiple- choice” questions, but identification of structures in diagrams/drawings as well as matching questions and filling-in gaps in statements, True or False statements, shall, also, be used. The ExamSoft (Monitored) system of assessment will be employed.

  1. Each quiz shall contribute a maximum of 20 points to the final mark/grade for the course. There shall be two quizzes, one before the mid-term examination (100 points), and the other before the final examination (100 points) – see below, for breakdown.

  2. The laboratory/practical component of the examination will, also, be based on “multiple choice format”, using the SAKAI “Tests and Quizzes” system.

Main Evaluations --- Equine, Ruminant/Pig, Avian and Fish Anatomy

    1. Quiz 1 (Feb. 4, 2022)   20 points (Lect. Nos. 1-9)

    2. Mid-term Examination (theory) 60 points (Lect. Nos. 1-22)

    3. Mid-term Examination (laboratory)  40 points

      Total:   120 points

    1. Quiz 2 (Apr. 1, 2022) 20 points (Lect. Nos. 23-30)

    2. Final Examination (theory)  60 points (Lect. Nos. 1-45)

    3. Final Examination (laboratory)  40 points

      Total:  120 points

Recommended Study Strategies

Anatomy is best learned by having relevant specimens or using good quality and accurate diagrams, pictures, or drawings, at hand. Attendance and hands-on activities at dissection sessions are invaluable. For virtual learning, there are several, good videos online which students can access and use reasonably without breaching copyright issues. Prior reading of lecture and laboratory material is highly recommended and profitable. Small group (three, but not more than five person) study sessions are very helpful and beneficial, where possible.

Instructor's Expectations of the Student

We expect students to read through appropriate sections of the dissection guides before study of the laboratory slides and videos. This is extremely helpful, not only in orientation but also in recognition of structures and understanding of topography. In dissection slides, it is important that you try to recognize structures in diagrams, drawings and photographs that you had encountered in your lectures. You are encouraged to practice making sketches of organs and structures, as you read along. Remember, do not read anatomy as you would a novel. Anatomy is one; there is no division between knowledge obtained during the laboratory segment and that obtained from the lecture or panopto recording. The use of the “Help Questions” provided for each body region and/or species is an excellent learning and knowledge consolidation strategy.

Professionalism Statement

The SGU's Student Policies, Procedures and Non-Academic Standards are detailed in the SGU Student Manual, 2016/2017.

Attendance/Participation Policy

(refer student to the student manual page if applicable)

Students are expected to be available during the standard 8-5am AST school day, to virtually attend, engage with online content, and participate in all classes and clinical rotations for which they have registered. Employment is not an excusable absence. Although attendance, engagement, and participation may not be recorded at every academic activity, attendance, engagement, and participation is graded for mandatory sessions. Students’ lack of attendance, engagement, and participation may adversely affect their academic status as specified in the grading policy.

If failure to attend, engage, or participate in individual classes, examinations, and online activities, or from the University itself is anticipated, or occurs spontaneously due to illness or other extenuating circumstances, proper notification procedures must be followed”.

Lecture or Zoom session attendance policy: Lecture/Zoom sessions are not mandatory, but highly desirable and recommended.

Laboratory session attendance policy: it is expected that every student will comply very strictly with the instructions on the laboratory component of this course. This prepares students for necropsy and surgery courses, as well as physical diagnosis. In the virtual learning system, all recommended prosection slides and videos should be studied very carefully, with the previously obtained knowledge of canine and feline anatomy providing essential guide and basis for appreciation of regional, systematic, and organ structure. Laboratory sessions are compulsory for on-campus students, and a loss of up to 5% of the final grade may be incurred by those students who fail to attend a minimum of 90% of the sessions, without due and prior permission.

Policy Regarding Missing Examinations and/or Failure of Submission of Assignments

Students who fail to attend an examination (Sakai quiz/test or Examsoft) or submit an assignment by the deadline without a valid reason (see student manual: SGUSVM POLICY ON AN EXCUSED ABSENCE (EA) FOR STUDENTS) will receive a score of “0” points for the examination.

Students who have technical issues during the examination MUST inform the Course Director (s) ( and IT ( OR OR call 1- 631-665-8500 ext. 4444 (US, NU, International) OR 1-473-439-2000 ext. 4444 (Grenada), AND Dean of Students ( during the open period for the examination. Failure to do so immediately will result in the student receiving the highest score recorded at the time, but NOT being eligible to take a completion examination.

Scheduling of examinations (regular, re-sit, completion, comprehensive, or exemption) is at the discretion of the University.

ExamSoft Policy

All students are responsible for knowing and complying with the University’s Code of Conduct and the guidelines. Students must read and then sign the Honor Code statement at the start of examinations to indicate that they will comply with the University Code of Conduct.

Prior to Exam Day

  1. Each student is required to have a laptop for the purpose of taking computer-based examinations (e-Exams) at SGU. Students must ensure that their laptops meet the current minimum system requirements prior to exam day:
  2. Examinees must use their MY SGU Member Center username and password to access the Custom Home Page ( created by ExamSoft for the University.
  3. Examinees are responsible for downloading and registering the latest version of Examplify on their laptop prior to exam day. Once Examplify has been successfully downloaded, examinees are strongly encouraged to familiarize themselves with the software by downloading and taking practice exams.
  4. Examinees are responsible for setting their laptop up for ExamMonitor prior to the exam (see links below).
  5. Examinees will be notified via MyCourses, of all exam related information. Email notifications will also be sent from ExamSoft Support to examinees, notifying them of examinations available for downloading.
  6. Examinees experiencing difficulties with their laptop are encouraged to visit the IT department for assistance prior to exam day. Examinees needing a laptop must visit the Office of Institutional Advancement (OIA) to request an exam loaner.
  7. Examinees should visit the following information to familiarize themselves with the online proctored exam format and set up their baseline photo.
    1. A Examsoft/ExamID quick guide for students (Please note that the current Examplify version is 2.3.8)
    2. The Examsoft student perspective video 30mins
    3. The Examsoft/ExamID FAQ
    4. Examsoft information page
    5. The general Reminders/Guidelines
Copyright Policy

The materials (such as slides, handouts and audio/video recordings) provided to students who are taking courses at St. George’s University (SGU) are the intellectual property of the Faculty and/or Administration of SGU. Students are free to use these materials solely for the purpose of group or individual study. Reproduction in whole or in part is prohibited.