Biomedical Anatomy

Current Syllabus
  • Note that due to the new approach in the dispensation of this course the course director reserve the right to adjust this syllabus at any given time if it may become necessary. In these instances, class will be informed of adjustments/changes in a timely manner so that students are not adversely affected. 
General Information

Course Director Name: Eugene Rennie   

Course instructors Name(s): Dr. Eugene Rennie, Dr. Tom Aire, Dr. Crissy-Ann Harrylal, Dr. Rhea St. Louis and Dr. Narindra Roopnarine

Course Director Contact Information: Tel- 444 4175 Ext-3329 

Course instructors (s) Contact Information: Tel 444-4175 Dr. Aire Ext. 3327, Dr. Harrylal Ext. 3326, Dr. St. Louis Ext. 3331, Dr. Roopnarine Ext. 3337

Course Director contact: Via emails:

Course Management tool: To learn to use Sakai, the Course management tool, access the link

Course Curriculum Information

Course Description:

Biomedical Anatomy/BIOL 303 is an introductory veterinary anatomy course for Preveterinary and Foundation students. It is designed to facilitate acquisition of basic anatomical knowledge of the dog (canine), and also to acquire knowledge of some anatomical differences (comparative anatomy) among certain domestic species; ovine (sheep), caprine (goat), equine (horse), porcine (pig) and feline (cat) including the chicken and fish. 

 Lectures and laboratory sessions have been adopted to accomplish the objectives of this course of both onsite and online. Thus, the course involves didactic classroom lectures on site and virtual lectures through Zoom sessions on Sakai.  The laboratory sessions will be achieved through onsite laboratory demonstrations and virtual images that can be accessed on a specific website i.e.,,   plus images from related recommended texts for this course.

The lecture part of the course (theory) comprises of approximately 45 lectures, based in part on canine and some aspects of comparative anatomy as it relates to other domestic species. It is also composed of an introductory part that includes for example basic anatomical terminologies, and a histology component. The histology component will include related virtual images and onsite lectures plus laboratory sessions that corroborates the following topics and are as follows:

  • Types of epithelium
  • Types of connective tissue
  • Muscles
  • Nervous tissue

 On site/online lectures material in the power point format and corresponding audio versions of zoom sessions will be made available on Sakai under the resource segment of the biomedical anatomy course. 

 The lectures will be available according to the objectives of the respective topics that are provided herein.  Both lecture and laboratory sessions complement each other in realizing these objectives.

 It is emphasized here that the lecture notes presented are only meant as a guideline and that students are expected to use the recommended and required texts to further enhance their learning experiences. 

Please note that for lecture/written exam, students will be tested based on the power points material provided, guided by the corresponding learning objectives for the respective topics.

Course Evaluation

Theory /written examinations and quizzes will be based mainly on multiple-choice questions and can include True and False based on the desecration of the course director.  

The laboratory component of the examinations (laboratory quizzes, mid-term, and final lab examinations) shall consist of identification/naming of structures learnt on virtual images provided by your given online site and your onsite laboratory demonstratory sessions. In reference to the histology segment, students will also be asked to identify structures according to what was learnt virtually and in the onsite lecture and laboratory sessions according to related images provided. 

Please note that your final examination will be cumulative.

To comply with university examinations policy, all the examinations of this course will be sequestered, students will not be able to see their exams (scripts) after the examination.

The examinations with their point value are listed in the table below.

Exam type


 Weight (points)

Quiz 1: Lab and lecture



Quiz 2: Lab and lecture



Midterm Exam: Lab and lecture



Quiz 3: Lecture



Quiz 4: Lab and lecture



Final Exam: Lab and lecture






Gran total



Laboratory Guide:

Please read the following information:

  • Carnivore/dog virtual and demonstrative lab sessisons (15 labs):
  • Please note that all contents for the carnivore virtual lab segment are accessed through the following website:

Note that on the homepage of this website there is a subsection entitled “ Carnivore dissection lab.” In this subsection the required labs for your virtual anatomy learning are available.

Format of virtual laboratory proceedings:

  • Please note that in order to facilitate a comprenhesive understanding of material, students are expected to begin study according to the format suggested herein in accordance with  the given website: 

 For every lab student should be guided by:   

  • Lab objectives,
  • Instructor commentary, 
  • Dissection Videos, 
  • Dissection Images.  

 Students are expected to know and identify structures by name on the virtual images provided.

Topics for virtual laboratory sessions are as follows: 

  • Lab 1- Thoracic Limb extrinsic muscles 
  • Lab 2- Ventral Neck muscles and remaining extrinsic muscles of the thoracic limb
  • Lab 3- Thoracic Limb intrinsic muscles: Scapula and Brachium
  • Lab 4- Thoracic limb intrinsic muscles: Antebrachium and Manus
  • Lab 5- Pelvic Limb Muscles: Rump and Thigh
  • Lab 6- Pelvic Limb Muscles: Caudal Hip, Cranial Thigh, and Cranial Crus
  • Lab 7- Pelvic Limb Muscles: Caudal Crus and Hip
  • Lab 8- Hypaxial Muscles of the Neck, Thorax, and Abdomen
  • Lab 9- Epaxial Muscles  
  • Lab 10- Muscles of the Thoracic Wall   
  • Lab 11- Thoracic Cavity: Lungs-Identify lobes of Right lung and Left Lung (what are the difference between left and right lungs with respect to lobes?)
  • Lab 12- Autonomic Nerves and Heart
  • Lab 15- Abdominal Wall and Inguinal Canal and related structures (spermatic cord)
  • Lab 16- Abdominal and Peritoneal cavities and Abdominal Viscera
  • Lab 20- Pelvic limb vessels
Course Objectives
  • This course is subsequent to BIOL 1 and 2, and is designed to achieve the following objectives:
  • Learn anatomical nomenclature and vocabulary that will foster greater understanding of the course (introductory segment)
  • Be able to identify, describe and locate anatomical structures through lecture and virtual images of both the cat and dog.



Topic 1: Appendicular system/skeleton: Thoracic and pelvic limb Time frame: 4 Lectures: 3 hours and 20 minutes

Learning outcomes of thoracic and hind limb:

  • Define the appendicular system.
  • Learn name of the segments of the thoracic and pelvic limb and their associated bones. Examples:
    • -Thoracic limb: 
  • Pectoral girdle segment – Associated bones- clavicle and scapula
  • Brachium (arm) segment- Associated bone - humerus
  • Antebrachium (forearm) segment- Associated bone - radius and ulna
  • -Forepaw (manus) segment, that includes wrist/carpus with its digits- Associated bones- metacarpals, phalanges, dorsal and palmar sesamoid bone
  • -Definition of the carpus
  • -Definition of the digits

 Hindlimb (examples cont)

  • -Femoral segment- Associated bone - Femur
  • -Crus segment- Associated Bones-Tibia and fibula
  • -Tarsus segment- Associated Bones-Tarsal bones

Appendicular skeleton:

Thoracic limb:


Describe general characteristics of the lateral surface of scapula:

  • Note the presence of supraspinous and infraspinous fossae
  • Note the presence of the spine of the scapula
  • -Location of respective fossa in relationship to the spine of the scapula
  • -Note the presence of an acromion associated with the distal end of the spine of the scapula 

Comparative Anatomy of the Scapula:

 Differences of the scapula in feline, canine, equine, and bovine species according to the following:

  • Feline:  Note that the acromion has hamate and suprahamate process. Identify those structures in virtual images
  • Canine:   Note the presence of acromion in distal part of spine. Identify structure in virtual images 
  • Equine:   Note that the acromion is absent in distal part of spine. Be able to distinguish  the scapula of the horse from that of other species mentioned.
  • Bovine: Note that the acromion is present (be able to differentiate from that of equine)


  • -Note the anatomical features in the proximal extremity of the humerus as specified in lecture:
  • -Head
  • -Neck
  • -Greater and lesser tubercle
  • -Note the anatomical features in the distal extremity of the humerus as specified in lecture:
  • -Define humeral condyle
  • -Note the parts of humeral condyle   

Comparative Anatomy of the humerus of the dog and the humerus of the horse according to the following:

Differences in proximal extremity of these two species according to the following: 

  • -Unlike that of the dog note the presence of an intermediate tubercle in that of the horse -Unlike that of the dog note the presence of cranial and a caudal part of the greater tubercle in that of the horse


  •  General anatomical features of the ulna:

Proximal extremity:

  • -Note the olecranon of the ulna
  • -Note the trochlea notch of the ulna

Distal extremity:

  • -Note the lateral styloid process


 General anatomical features of the radius:

Proximal extremity: Note the following:

  • - Head of the radius
  • -Neck of radius
  • -Radial tuberosity

Distal extremity (trochlea):

  • -Note the medial styloid process

Comparative Anatomy of the radius and ulna of carnivores (dog) and Porcine (pig) to that of ruminants and equine (horse) according to the following: 

  • -Note that in the pig and the dog the ulna is a separate and complete bone
  • -Note that in ruminants the ulna is fused to the radius
  • -Note that in the horse the ulna is not only fused to the radius but is also an incomplete bone -Note that in the horse the distal epiphysis fuse to the radius to form the lateral styloid process

Comparison of the metacarpal/metatarsal bone of the dog to that of ruminants and equine:


  • -Note that all five metacarpals bones are present; however, the 1st metacarpal is reduced with a corresponding reduced number of digits.  Digits 2-5 bear weight.


  • Note that in contrast to the dog; in the ruminants the 1st and 2nd metacarpals are absent and that the 3rd and 4th  metacarpals bones are fused to form a single bone known as the cannon bone (Mc3 and Mc 4); it supports the weight bearing 3rd and 4th digits. Note that the 5th metacarpal bone is markedly reduced and does not support a digit.


  • -Note that in the horse the 1st and 5th metacarpal bones are absent. Also note that the 2nd and 4th metacarpal bones are markedly reduced and are commonly called “splint bones” Note that the 3rd metacarpal bone is notably larger than the 2nd and 4th metacarpal bones and that it is the only one which support a digit.

Topic 2: Appendicular skeleton: Hind limb  Time frame: 4 Lectures: 3hrs and 20 minutes

Learning outcomes:

Pelvic girdle:

  • -Distinguish the bones of the pelvic girdle
  • -Note that fusion of these bones forms the os coxae  
  • -Define the pelvic cavity
  • - Note the bones that contribute to the formation of the acetabula fossa


  • -Note the anatomical features on the proximal extremity of the femur
  • -Note the anatomical features on the distal extremity
  • -Note muscle that is within the tendon of insertion of the patella
  • -Define patella: (sesamoid bone)  

Comparative anatomy of the proximal and distal extremity of the femur of the dog, horse, and ox according to the following:

  • -Unlike that of the dog, the greater trochanter of the horse is divided into cranial and caudal parts, 
  • -Note that the greater trochanter is not divided in ruminants (ox) and other species. -Also note that unlike that of the dog there is the presence of a third trochanter in the horse, and that this feature (third trochanter) is absent in ruminants
  • - Also note that unlike that of the dog, the medial ridge of the trochlea is significantly larger than the lateral ridge in the horse and ox 


  • -Note the anatomical features of the proximal extremity of the tibia
  • -Note the muscles that are attached to the tibial tuberosity
  • -Note the anatomical features of the distal extremity
  • --Define the cochlea, articular surface
  • -Relate the lateral and medial malleolus to their respective bones


  • -Note the different parts of the fibula


  • --Note number of tarsal bones in the tarsus
  • -Name bones in the proximal row of the tarsus
  • -Note position of the central tarsal bone
  • -Differentiate between the calcaneus bone and the talus bone

Topic 3: Axial skeleton Time frame: 3 Lectures: 2 hours and 30 minutes Learning outcomes: 

Bones of the skull:

  • Differentiate and identify bones of the face and skull of the dog

Bones of the axial skeleton:  

  • Describe the general characteristics of a typical vertebrae
  • Differentiate vertebrae according to specicic segmental features of vertebral column 
  • Learn parts of ribs
  • Describe the composition of the sternum and the type of joint between the respective stern brae 
  • Note   the type of joint between the bones of the vertebral column

Compare the species differences according to the number of vertebrae of the vertebral column:

  • -Dog
  • -Horse
  • -Ruminants 
  • -Pig
  • -Learn and be able to differentiate the vertebral column of species based on their respective vertebral formula.

Topic 4: Joints (Arthrology) Time frame: 5 lectures: 4 hours and 10 minutes -Learning outcomes:

  • -Understand the meaning of arthrology
  • -Define joints 
  • -Note tissues that articulate joints
  • -Classification (types) of joints, and note related examples (only as emphasized in class)
  • -Learn characteristics of joints as studied in class

Topic 5 Respiratory system: Nasal cavity, laryngopharynx, and pharynx, trachea and bronchial tree.

  • Learning outcomes: 
  • Define the nasal cavity
  • Note the caudal limit of the nasal cavity-choana and its topographical location (be familiar with related image)
  • Note structure that divides the nasal cavity into right and left fossae
  • Note the air channels/meatuses of the nasal cavity and their specific location
  • Note what are the different nasal conchae
  • Note the subregion of the pharynx that is related to the respiratory systemlaryngopharynx
  • Define the larynx, note its characteristics (be familiar with cartilaginous parts), and function only as elaborated in lecture
  • Learn the anatomical features of the trachea and related structures
  • Learn the components of the bronchial tree and related structureS

Topic 6: Thorax cavity: Time frame: 3 Lectures: 2 hours and 30 minutes

Learning outcomes:

  • General characteristics of the left and right lobe of the canine lung (as studied in lecture)
  • Note anatomical differences between the right and left lung
  • Describe and establish the boundaries of the thoracic cavity
  • Learn the organs within the thoracic cavity Describe and know the position of the thoracic inlet.
  • Define the mediastinum.
  • Identify structures within the mediastinum.
  • Describe the divisions of the mediastinum.
  • Define pleura.
  • Name and describe the different pleura with respect to their location
  • Define the trachea.
  • Describe its characteristics.
  • Establish the cranial and caudal limit of the trachea 
  • Define and locate tracheal carina
  • Define the bronchial tree
  • Learn the different parts of the bronchial tree
  • Identify the principal bronchi.

Comparative anatomy of the thorax:

  • -Note the presence of microscopic openings (fenestrations) in the mediastinum of the dog, horse, and sheep.

 Ox, goat, and pig:

  • -Note the absence of these openings in the mediastinum of these animals -Note the clinical significance of the presence of these openings:
  • Allow a unilateral pneumothorax to become bilateral

Comparative anatomy of the lung:

Based on lobation of the lung learn the anatomical differences between that of the dog, the horse, ruminant and pig:

  • -Note that in all domestic species the left lung has two lobes: cranial and caudal
  • -With the exception of the horse, note that the right lung of all other domestic species has four lobes whereas that of the horse lacks a middle lobe of the right lung. 
  • -Note that in all species but the horse, the cranial lobe of the left lung is further divided into two parts: cranial and caudal
  • -Note that in ruminants the cranial lobe of the right lung is also divided into cranial and caudal parts
  • -Note that intralobar lobulation of the lung is clearer in the ox than in the goat and pig and that it is hardly detectable in sheep.

Topic 7: Cardiovascular system Time frame: 6 Lectures: 5 hours Learning outcomes: 

  • Define the pericardium
  • Describe and identify different parts of the pericardium                                                                               
  • Describe external features of the surface of the heart
  • Learn and be able to identify blood vessels related to the heart
  • Describe and identify the different layers of the heart (epicardium, myocardium and endocardium) 
  • Identify the pericardial cavity and understand its relationship with related layers of the heart
  • Describe and identify the internal anatomical features of the heart and understand their respective function.
  • Understand and describe the pulmonary and systemic circulation of the heart and their relationship to the respective cavities of the heart.

Comparative anatomy of the cardiovascular system:

Understand the differences and similarities of the azygos vein as it relates to its absence or presence with respect to the left or right side of the dog, horse, and artiodactyls:

Carnivore, equine and artiodactyles:

  • -Note that the right azygos vein persists after birth in the dog and horse, whereas in artiodactyles the left vein predominates
  • -Note that occasionally only the cranial part of the right azygos may persist in the ox, however the presence of the complete right azygos vein in addition to the left azygos vein is more common in the sheep and goat.

Aortic arch

  • -Learn the differences and similarities with respect to the absence or presence of the vessels of the aortic arch (brachiocephalic trunk and left subclavian) in that of the dog, horse, ruminants, and pigs:
  • -Note that like that of the dog, the left subclavian artery is a direct branch of the aorta only in the pig and not in that of other domestic ungulates
  • -Note that in other species the left subclavian typically arises as a branch of the brachiocephalic trunk 

Topic 8: Urogenital system: Time frame: 2 Lectures: 1 hours and 40 minutes

Learning outcomes:

  • Describe and be familiar with the components of the urogenital system
  • Note the difference in position of the right and left kidneys
  • Note the relationship of the right kidney to the liver
  • Describe the external characteristics of the kidney 
  • Identify the blood vessels associated with the kidney
  • Know what the renal pelvis of the ureter is, and understand its particular function. 
  • Be able to describe and identify gross internal anatomical feature of the kidney (pyramids, cortex, medulla, etc).
  • Be acquainted with labelled images of the kidney as emphasized in class
  • Understand what the trigone of the bladder is

Compare the differences and similarities as they relate to the location of the right kidney of the dog to that of: 

  • -pig
  • -ruminants
  • -horse
  • -Note the difference of the gross anatomical features of the kidney of the dog to that of small and large ruminants (ox).
  • -Note the morphological difference of the right kidney in the horse to that of the left kidney.

Topic 9: Male Genital Organ of the Dog: Time frame: 3 Lectures: 2 hours and 30 minutes Learning outcomes:

  • Identify and describe the different parts of the male genital system
  • Describe the general characteristics of the scrotum and the function of related anatomical features; dartos muscle
  • Describe and identify the ductus deferens and related function
  • Note general morphological characteristics of the testis
  • Describe and identify the different parts of the epididymis and its related function
  • Identify associated ligaments (ligament of the tail of the epididymis and proper ligament of the tail of the epididymis)
  • Describe and identify the internal anatomical features of the epididymis and related function according to labelled images as emphasized in class 

Inguinal canal:

  • Define the inguinal canal
  • Identify the superficial and deep limits of the inguinal canal 
  • Describe the borders of the inguinal canal
  • Define the vaginal tunic/vaginal process
  • Identify the different parts of the vaginal tunic
  • Define the spermatic cord
  • Identify and describe the components of the spermatic cord and associated structures
  • Differentiate between mesorchium and Mesoductus deferens
  • Identify the extrinsic muscles of the penis
  • Describe the different parts of the penis, and be familiar with a labelled image of the same
  • Define and describe the crura/ root of the penis and understand the difference between carpus cavernosum and corpus spongiosum.

Comparative anatomy of the male accessory sex glands:

 Note the differences in the number of accessory sex glands related to the male reproductive system in the following species: 

  • -Dog
  • - equine
  • -ruminants
  • -pig

Topic 10: Female Genital system: Time frame: 1 Lecture 5 minutes Learning outcomes:

  • Name the different components of the female genital system
  • Identify the related ligament of the ovaries
  • Describe the general characteristics of the ovary
  • Describe the different parts/layers of the uterus
  • In a labelled image of the female reproductive organ identify the uterine horn, vagina, vestibule, vulvar and clitoris  
  • Describe and identify the respective parts of the broad ligament
  • Describe and identify the regions//parts of the internal structure of the ovary
  • Describe the function of the cortex of the ovary
  • Note the different segments of the uterine tube
  • Understand the function of the uterine tube

Topic 11:  Digestive system and abdomen Time frame: 6 Lectures: 5 hours  Learning outcomes:

  • -Note the primary parts of digestive system
  • Define and establish the limit of the mouth
  • Define and establish the respective parts of the oral cavity and their limits 
  • Note characteristics of anatomical features of the oral cavity
  • Note papillae of the tongue that is associated with taste buds 
  • -Note divisions of the palate
  • -Define the pharynx and note its subdivisions

Alimentary canal

  • -Note the different part of the alimentary canal
  • -Differentiate between large and small intestine 
  • -Note segments/regions within the respective parts of alimentary canal as indicated in lecture;

For example, Colon:

  • Ascending colon
  • Transverse colon
  • Descending colon
  • -Note the morphological characteristics of the respective parts of the alimentary canal
  • -Be familiar with labelled transverse images of the respective parts of the alimentary canal

Accessory organs of digestive system

Gall bladder:

  • -Differentiate between cystic, hepatic and bile duct
  • -Differentiate between the main and accessory pancreatic duct
  • -Understand the relationship of the major and minor duodenal papillae  the as they relate to the bile and accessory pancreatic duct


  • -Note the different lobes of the liver
  • -Be familiar with labelled images of the same
  • -Note the ligaments of the liver


-Be familiar with the dental formula of the dog

-Be familiar with a labelled image of the different parts of a tooth

Salivary glands

  • -Be familiar with the classification of the salivary glands and their specific location with the aid of labelled images provided
  • -Understand the functions of these glands
  • -Be familiar with the parts of the sublingual salivary gland
  • -Note the point of opening of the ducts of the major salivary glands;

For example?

 The duct of the mandibular salivary gland opens into the sublingual caruncle


  • -Be familiar with the muscles that forms the wall of the abdominal cavity
  • -Note their collective function 
  • -Note the classification of the serous peritoneum according to its specific location. 
  • -Define the peritoneal cavity
  • -Define connecting peritoneum
  • -Classification of connecting peritoneum according to its relationship with specific organ.

  Comparative anatomy of the alimentary canal of the following species:

  • Equine  
  • Ruminants  
  • Porcine
  • Chicken
  • Fish


  • -Note that unlike that of the dog, there is the presence of a torus pyloricus in the stomach of ruminants and pig
  • -Note that in the pig unlike that of the dog, ruminants, and horse there is the presence of a diverticulum associated with the fundus of the stomach 
  • -Note that the fundus (saccus cecus) of the horse stomach is very extensive unlike that of the dog, ruminants and pig
  • - Note that in the horse the junction of the non-glandular mucosa with the glandular mucosa of the stomach, occurs in the body of the stomach rather than in the cardia, unlike that of the dog, ruminants, and pig
  • -Note that in the horse and pig there is a non-glandular part of the mucosa located near the cardia unlike that seen in the dog and ruminants.
  • Stomach of chicken, geese and others that are similar:
  • -Note that the stomach of these birds has two parts 
    • Proventriculus (glandular part)
    • Ventriculus/Gizzard (muscular part)

Stomach of fish:

  • -Note that the stomach varies in shape in some species
  • -Note the extra part at the junction of the stomach and duodenum in some species: 
    • Pyloric cecae

Ruminant forestomach

  • -Note the presence of a forestomach in ruminants unlike that seen in the dog, horse and pig -Be familiar with the compartments of the forestomach

Small intestine


  • -Note that unlike that of the dog there is the presence of a sigmoid loop in the cranial part of the duodenum in ruminant, horse, and pig
  • -Note a dilation (duodenal ampulla) in the cranial part of the duodenum of the horse that is not seen in the dog, pig, and ruminant.
  • -Note the presence of a hepatopancreatic ampulla in the cat and horse that is not seen in the dog, ruminant and pig


  • -Note that the jejunum varies in length from a meter or less in the cat to as much as 50 meters in the ox


  • Note that the ileal ostium joins the cecum in the horse and empties into the ascending colon in all other domestic species

Large intestine


  • Note the difference of the length of the cecum in the cat, as compared to the dog, pig, ruminant and horse
  • Note the number of openings and related structures in the cecum of the horse as compared to all other domestic animals. 
  • Note that sacculations (haustra) are only present in the cecum of the pig and horse. Also note that this is as a result of muscle bands (teniae) in its wall 
  • Note that the cecum of the horse is very large as compared to other domestic species  Colon

Ascending colon

  • Appreciate the differences in the ascending colon of the following species


  • Note the presence of subparts in the ascending colon
  • Note and name the specific subparts in the ascending colon of the horse.  -Note the number of tenia that correspond to the respective subparts Ruminants:
  • Note the different parts of the ascending colon according to the characteristics of the respective parts as follows:
    • Proximal loop
    • Spiral loop-note that this part has centripetal and centrifugal turns
    • Distal loop


  • Note that the ascending colon has the same basic parts as that of ruminants, and that however the proximal loop is absent and the distal loop is subtle
  • Note specifically that the spiral loop is arranged in an inverted cone-shaped coil, and that the centripetal turns are sacculated


  • Note that in the dog the ascending colon is unmodified and that it has no subparts

Comparative anatomy of the following accessory organs of the digestive system



  • Note that very few fissures are present to aid the differentiation of the various liver lobes


  • Note that there are additional divisions to the four basic lobes. Be familiar with the names of the additional divisions. 
  • Be familiar with divisions of the four basic lobes


  • Note that although the pig’s liver is generally similar to that of the dog, however it lacks a papillary process on the caudate lobe


  • Note that the liver of the horse is similar to that of carnivores except that the right lobe remains undivided and that there is no papillary process on the caudate lobe


Pig and ruminants

  • Note that the hepatic ducts unite to form a common hepatic duct which then joins the cystic duct to form the bile duct


  • Note that the horse lacks a gallbladder and cystic duct, and that the distal part of the hepatic duct continues to the duodenum as the bile duct


  • Note that several hepatic ducts separately enter the cystic duct which becomes the bile duct after the entry of the last hepatic duct
  • Note specie variation in the location of the major duodenal papillae

Time frme: 2 Lectures: 1 hour and 40 minutes

  • Types of epithelium
  • Types of connective tissue
  • Muscle
  • Nervous tissue

Time frame: 3 Lectures: 2 hours and 30 minutes

  • Cells of the nervous system
  • Mechanism of action of the cells of the nervous system
  • Classification of the nervous system
  • Learn the components of the nervous system:
    • Central nervous system
    • Peripheral nervous system
  • Learn the sub-classification of the peripheral nervous system
  • Learn the divisions of the brain including the embryological names
  • Learn the anatomical features of the spinal cord

Program Outcomes Met By This Course:

  1. Adequately utilize multidisciplinary knowledge of basic structures and functions of healthy animals. 
  2. Correlate basic knowledge to relevant clinical situations. 
  3. Demonstrate, evaluate and model effective communication in the practise of the veterinary profession.
  4. Cultivate the art of leadership and teamwork in the practise of the veterinary profession.

SAS Grading Scale: Grades will be assigned as follows:

A  = 89.5% or better

B+ = 84.5 - 89.4%

B  = 79.5 - 84.4%

C+ = 74.5 - 79.4%

C = 69.5 - 74.4%

D = 64.5 - 69.4%

F = 64.4% or less 

Course Materials:
  • Power points of lectures are provided on sakai
  • Require; one copy of Dissection Guide; Author Lynn Ruoff, DVM.- provided.
  • Require; dissection Kit- provided

Text: Optional: Miller’s Guide to the Dissection of the Dog (6th edition), by H.E. Evans and DE LAHunta.

Supplementary Readings/Resources: See optional above.

School of Arts and Sciences Master Syllabi — Info for All Sections

Plagiarism Policy

Academic Integrity

The St. George’s University Student Manual (2019/2020) states as follows:

Plagiarism is regarded as a cardinal offense in academia because it constitutes theft of the work of someone else, which is then purported as the original work of the plagiarist. Plagiarism draws into disrepute the credibility of the Institution, its faculty, and students; therefore, it is not tolerated” (p. 48).

Plagiarism also includes the unintentional copying or false accreditation of work, so double check your assignments BEFORE you hand them in.

Be sure to do good, honest work, credit your sources and reference accordingly and adhere to the University’s Honor Code. Plagiarism and cheating will be dealt with very seriously following the university’s policies on Plagiarism as outlined in the Student Manual.

Your work may be subject to submission to plagiarism detection software, submission to this system means that your work automatically becomes part of that database and can be compared with the work of your classmates.

Attendance Requirement

The St. George’s University Student Manual (2019/2020) states as follows:

Students are expected to attend all classes and or clinical rotations for which they have registered. Although attendance may not be recorded at every academic activity, attendance may be taken randomly. Students’ absence may adversely affect their academic status as specified in the grading policy. If absence from individual classes, examinations, and activities, or from the University itself is anticipated, or occurs spontaneously due to illness or other extenuating circumstances, proper notification procedures must be followed. A particular course may define additional policies regarding specific attendance or participation” (p. 9).

Examination Attendance

The St. George’s University Student Manual (2019/2020) states as follows:

All matriculated students are expected to attend all assigned academic activities for each course currently registered. Medical excuses will be based on self-reporting by students. Students who feel they are too sick to take an examination or other required activity on a specific day must submit the online SAS medical excuse, which is available on Carenage. Students are only allowed two such excuses a year. Upon consultation with the Director of University Health Service, the third excuse will result in a mandatory medical leave of absence. The policies regarding make-up examinations are at the option of the Course Director” (p.46).

For additional specific examination policies and procedures, refer to the St. George’s University Student Manual (2019/2020), pages 31 through 37.

Student Accessibility and Accommodation Services Policy

The St. George’s University Student Manual (2019/2020) states as follows:

A student with a disability or disabling condition that affects one or more major life activities, who would like to request an accommodation, must submit a completed application form and supporting documentation to the Student Accessibility and Accommodation Services (SAAS) located in the Dean of Students Office. It is highly recommended that students applying for accommodations do so at least one month before classes begin to allow for a more efficient and timely consideration of the request. If a fully completed application is not submitted in a timely fashion, an eligibility determination may not be made, and accommodations, where applicable, may not be granted prior to the commencement of classes and/or examinations” (p. 8).


It is the responsibility of the student to read and understand the policies, laws, rules and procedures that while they could affect your grade for a course, have not been specifically outlined in the course syllabus. These are contained in the St. George’s University Student Manual.