Anatomy and Physiology I (for Health Science)

Course Description

Anatomy & Physiology I (BIOL101) is a 4-credit course administered by the Department of Anatomical Sciences at St. George’s University, Grenada. BIOL101 is the first in a series of two introductory courses to Anatomy and Physiology, with the other being BIOL202. BIOL101 begins with the Basic Anatomical Terminology and builds a foundation of Cellular Physiology, Basic Histology and Embryology knowledge. The course continues introducing students to the structure and function of the human body with a focus on the Musculoskeletal, Respiratory, Cardiovascular and Digestive systems. The student’s basic understanding of the Anatomy and Physiology of the human body will continue to develop throughout the delivery of the course. Students will continue to learn and apply their knowledge of Human Anatomy and Physiology to normal, healthy individuals as well as clinical correlations that are relevant to the health sciences.

Faculty and Staff

Course Director:

Dr. Kevlian Andrew

Associate Course Director:

Dr. Sasha Lake

Secretarial Staff:

Ms. Sharon-Rose Lessey

Teaching Faculty:

Dr. Abduraheem Farah


Dr. Alena Wade


Dr. Ali Drigo


Dr. Chrystal Antoine-Frank


Dr. Georbrina Hargrove


Dr. Michael Montalbano


Dr. Mohamed Abdelrahim


Dr. Rachael George


Dr. Simone Pierre


Dr. Stephen Onigbinde

Department (Location):

Anatomical Sciences (Building)

Faculty Office Hours:

Founder’s Annex 2 (FA 2)

Course Materials
  • Textbook: Tortora & Derrickson: Principles of Anatomy and Physiology, 16th Edition
  • Recommended: Test Bank for Principles of Anatomy and Physiology, 15th Edition Lecture Handouts
  • Lab Handouts

The textbook and lecture notes are meant to serve as the primary source for all necessary knowledge in this course. Students achieve success in the course by becoming familiar with the textbook, reading and reviewing required sections, and using the text to complete course learning objectives.


All communication between students and teaching faculty, course director or secretarial staff will only be done via SGU email accounts. Correspondence from other sources will not be entertained due to privacy issues.

For all administrative questions and problems including exams, grades etc. please contact the Course Director or Associate Course Director at: through the course email  

For notification of an absence from any scheduled laboratory session, lecture quiz or lecture exam, please send an e-mail to:  

Faculty Appointments

All faculty appointments need to be made through the course secretary in person or via email. Note that meeting times will be subject to faculty availability.

Content Related Questions

For all content-related questions, the most efficient way is through the use of the Discussion [Forums] in My Courses. It is a convenient way to interact with other students and is moderated by faculty. Teaching faculty will be available via the email addresses provided and can hold office hours upon request, once available.

Discussions [Forums] in My Courses:

Use only professional language relevant to course material: no derogatory remarks or inappropriate language will be allowed. All posts must be accompanied by the full name of the person posting. Failure to provide full name is a violation of the honor code and will result in the post being deleted.


Announcements regarding course activities, e.g., quizzes, exam venues, grades, program and schedule changes etc. will be posted in My Courses. Students are expected to regularly review, keep abreast with and/or act on information posted in the announcements area.


Students are reminded of the requirement of professionalism and should address their emails and comments accordingly. Students are required to always use their SGU email address in any course correspondence with faculty; there will be no reply to any other email.


Polls may be used periodically to get student feedback on affairs concerning the course. It is a convenient way for students to provide feedback to faculty. This feedback is useful for assisting the team in making adjustments to the course.

Management Tools

My Courses (SAKAI)

The My Courses site contains multiple tools and applications that facilitate the administration of the course.


Announcements – Important announcements regarding course activity will be made here.

Forums - Students may post academic and administrative questions on the forum. Faculty will moderate the forum and provide feedback on questions and answers. See guidelines in Communication section.


Resources – Important course material.

Course Information - Class schedule, online quiz schedule, course syllabus, course objectives, laboratory checklists etc.

Images – Bank of anatomical images that may be used for laboratory, quizzes and examinations.

Lectures - All course lectures are available as PDF documents.

Tests & Quizzes – Student access to online quizzes.

Gradebook – Student access to all course assessments, scores, and grades.

Turning Technologies – registration of clicker devices used for attendance.

To learn to use Sakai, the Course management tool, access the link

Course Objectives

Course objectives are a detailed list of learning objectives given to the students for each lecture topic of the course and is linked to the required textbook. Detailed list of Course objectives can be found in the Appendix A-D as well as in the My Courses – Resources folder on Sakai.

Student Learning Outcomes

Upon the completion of this course, students will be able to:

  1. Identify anatomical terminology and relate it to structures of the Skeletal and Muscular, Respiratory, Cardiovascular, and Digestive systems
  2. Describe the gross human anatomy and function of its organ systems
  3. Explain the mechanical physiology of the Skeletal and Muscular system
  4. Identify and describe the histology of Skeletal, Muscular, Respiratory, Cardiovascular and Digestive systems
  5. Discuss the basic Human Physiology of Respiratory, Cardiovascular and Digestive systems
  6. Apply the basic principles of Human Anatomy and Physiology to explain the pathology examples used in the classes.

General Outcomes Met by this Course

  • Ability to identify and describe anatomical structure and apply the knowledge to understand the role of each system covered in the function of the human physiology.
  • Demonstrate knowledge and skills to identify structures in the labs which will prepare students in building the foundation of the human anatomy.

Program Outcomes Met by this Course (Biology Program)

  • BIOL - PLO2: Apply knowledge of the basic structures and fundamental processes of life at the molecular, cellular and organismal levels.
  • BIOL - PLO3: Apply knowledge of the structure and function of the human body to health issues.
  • BIOL - PLO5: Demonstrate effective communication of scientific knowledge. BIOL - PLO6: Demonstrate problem solving and critical thinking skills.

Program Outcomes Met by this Course (Med 4-Year Program)

Apply the multidisciplinary body of basic sciences to clinical analysis and problem solving using:

  • The knowledge of normal structure, function, physiology and metabolism at the levels of the whole body, organ systems, cells, organelles and specific biomolecules, including embryology, aging, growth and development.
  • The principles of normal homeostasis including molecular and cellular mechanisms.

Learning Activities Lectures

Pre-recorded Lectures – Students will be expected to view the pre-recorded lecture videos posted in the Resources folder on Sakai. Students will be expected to use the post schedule as a guide for covering the material. Thus, students are responsible for having reviewed the material BEFORE the respective interactive sessions.

Live Interactive Lectures – Lectures will be held on Mondays/Wednesdays in Founder’s Annex (on campus) or Zoom (online) from 8:30am – 10:00am (AST). There may be an option for alternative online interactive session for students who are online in alternate time zones. A detailed lecture schedule will be available in the My Courses - Resources folder.

The purpose of the lectures is to give an outline of what students are expected to know, prioritize important aspects, and explain some of the difficult concepts. The lecturer may not be able to cover all the aspects listed in the handouts or cover all listed objectives. Students are expected to cover the remaining portions by themselves following the course objectives.

There may be assigned Direct Learning Activities (DLA’s) associated with course objectives that students are required to do self-study for. These topics/objectives include exam content and should be studied and expected in exams.

It is also an important learning exercise for students to learn to read textbooks and study important information relevant to the course. Pre-reading of the objectives and lectures notes will be of great help in understanding the lecture content.

Laboratory Sessions

Five (5) laboratory sessions will take place during the term that will be done in one or more ways:

  1. Onsite sessions in the Anatomy Wet Lab
  2. Live online sessions with videos and/or image materials to be discussed

Specifics regarding which options will be available will be given during the semester.

Laboratory sessions are designed to be an active, student-driven, hands-on experience. Students will work in small groups with their peers to discuss laboratory topics and identify anatomical structures on various specimen and images. Faculty will be available for assistance in live/ interactive sessions (or by forums/email after the sessions). Student participation in lab sessions (onsite or online) is mandatory. Failure to do so may result in loss of points. Lab rules, material and any other information will be posted in the My Courses – Resources folder.

Each lab session will have a quiz component covering images/content from lab (mainly) and course material discussed during the respective lab sessions and preceding lectures. Each quiz will contain 10 questions with a time limit of 15 minutes. The quizzes will be made available via ExamSoft after the lab session for a limited period of time.

N.B. Lab points will not be awarded to student who are absent for the live Lab sessions. Attendance is absolutely mandatory, and no remediation sessions will be offered.

Buzz Group Presentations

Students will be assigned to groups to research allocated topics and prepare presentations. These groups will then deliver their presentations live to the class and faculty. Evaluation will be done by faculty and peers. Students who are absent from presentations will not receive points for the sessions. No make-up sessions will be offered. (More information: My Courses – Resources.) Assessments

All quizzes and examinations will be administered either via Sakai or ExamSoft software unless stated otherwise.


Professional behavior, communication and interpersonal skills will be continuously assessed. In this course, Professionalism addresses attendance, timeliness, compliance, accountability, appearance, interactions, teamwork, motivation and respect. There are five (5) points allocated for professionalism which will be awarded at the end of the term, based on the categories listed above. Points will be automatically awarded for appropriate professional conduct. It is anticipated that students will demonstrate professional behavior at all times, and therefore, earn their full professionalism points. Should there be documented evidence of a student’s failure to demonstrate the expected professional behavior as assessed, he/she may experience partial or complete loss of professionalism points.

Buzz Group Presentations

There will be two (2) Buzz sessions in this course, worth a total of five (5) points. These will be conducted during live sessions where student groups will present their assigned topics to the class and faculty. Each group member must be present and actively participate in group activities before (preparation) and during (present slides) the presentation to be eligible to receive points.

Each presentation must also be accompanied by a group submission of the delivered presentation to the Assignments tool on Sakai to be considered complete.


Currently, all assignments in the course are related to Buzz Group presentations. Students will be expected to submit presentations (as groups) as well as peer evaluations (individual) to be eligible for full credit for the buzz group.

Online Quizzes

There will be a series of online quizzes posted on My Courses throughout the term. Each quiz will be associated with a lecture/ group of lectures. Quizzes will remain open for one week before closing. An Online Quiz schedule listing the opening and closing dates will be available in the My Courses - Resources folder.

Upon completion of the online quizzes, students MUST attain at least 80% of the required points to receive full credit for participation in that quiz. For example, if the total awarded points for a given quiz is 1, you must attain 0.8 points or more to get the full point. Scores below the required mark will not be awarded points and the student will receive a zero, (0) grade. Students will be given unlimited attempts to complete the quiz and the highest grade will be recorded. After submission, the score and answers are saved and can be reviewed.

All students are strongly advised to take the online quizzes soon after the corresponding lecture(s) would have been scheduled and are encouraged not to wait till close to the submission deadline. Quizzes will not be re-opened after they are closed.

All students must complete the quizzes individually. Your access to these quizzes will be recorded and traceable. It is each student’s responsibility to ensure that his/her score is recorded by checking the feedback and milestones. Any problems encountered should be reported to the course team prior to the closing date of the quiz. No make-up opportunities will be offered.

Lab Quizzes

There are 5 online Lab Quizzes that will be administered via ExamSoft. There will be two in the first half and three in the second half of the course. An announcement will be posted when the quizzes are open and made available. All students must complete the quizzes individually. Your access to these assignments will be recorded and traceable. Failure to complete the quiz on time will result in loss of points for the associated lab. There will be no opportunities for make-up quizzes.


There are 4 online Examinations that will be administered via ExamSoft, representing 18.5% of the final grade. There will be two in each half of the course. The Exams each contain 50 multiple choice questions on course material presented in each quarter of the course. The date, time, venue and other details related to the exams will be made available via Announcements on My Courses

Exams are cumulative and may include up to 5-10% of cumulative content. The final exam may be up to 15-20% cumulative.

Do not print/distribute any of the online questions. To do so is a violation of both copyright law and the SGU Honor Code as outlined in the Student Manual.

Exam Procedures

All SGU examinations are sequestered and are not available for individual review. Students having any queries regarding examination questions should make an appointment to discuss their views with the Course Director, but exam questions will not be reviewed with students.

Question Review Procedure

The scoring process for written examinations includes consideration of students’ question review requests and statistical item analysis. If a test item (question) in the exam is deleted for any reason from any examination, all responses to that question will be accepted as correct.

Release of Examination Grades

Results of all assessments will be published online in My Courses. Errors in published scores must be reported to the Course Director for validation within a period of two weeks. Any errors reported after the deadline will not be considered.

Completion Exams

A student can be eligible for a completion exam in the case of a medical excuse or an excused absence. The format of the completion exam may differ from the original exam format at the discretion of the Course Director. Completion exams may include a combination of multiple- choice questions, fill-in the blanks, essay questions or an oral exam. Students requesting completion exams MUST get a letter of permit email to the Course Directors about the need to be considered for a completion exam before it can be granted. Completion exam dates are at the discretion of the Course Director, usually set a week after all final exams for the course are completed, or later.

Course Schedule

A detailed course schedule with all activities can be found in Appendix E and on My Courses. N.B. schedule subject to change at the discretion of the Course Director.


SAS Grading Scale

Grades are awarded objectively based on points earned in the course. A higher letter grade may be missed (or gained) by a tenth of a point. The Course Director cannot curve grades and there are no options for extra points. All grades are final based on points earned during the term. Please do not send emails or seek appointments to discuss this issue. Grade appeals will only be considered if an error has been made in recording or calculation and should be brought to the attention of the Course Director within two weeks of grade release.

Grades will be assigned as follows:

Raw Points

Letter Grade





241.65 – 269.9



228.15 – 241.64


214.65 – 228.14


201.15 – 214.64



187.65 – 201.14



174.15 – 187.64






Course Grading

Assessment Category



Exam 1



Exam 2



Exam 3



Exam 4



Lab Quizzes (5)



Online Quizzes



Buzz Groups









Please note that under any circumstance, rounding of the decimal number of the grade will not be allowed. SAS grading scale and policy will be followed. (Refer to SAS grade scale above)

IT Issues

Throughout the term, the internet, My Courses or other SGU sites may be down or inaccessible. Students are advised to submit online assignments well in advance of the closing date and discouraged from waiting until the last minute. For any internet or My Courses problems, please contact the IT department directly. The Department of Anatomical Sciences is not responsible for any malfunctions of the university network, ExamSoft, Turning Technologies or My Courses site and/or any of its components.

Student Responsibilities
  • Attend all lectures and laboratory sessions on time.
  • Actively participate in lecture and laboratory activities.
  • Ensure your computer and ExamSoft are up to date and in working order.
  • In case of an absence due to illness (or otherwise), inform the course director as soon as possible.
  • Check your SGU email daily – all course correspondence must use SGU email account.
  • Submit online assignments on time – do not wait until the last minute.
  • Check posted scores on gradebook – report any possible errors within 2 weeks.
  • Ask for assistance at the earliest sign of difficulty.
  • Voice your honest feedback on course surveys and evaluations.
  • Treat faculty, students and staff with respect.
  • Read the course syllabus & be familiar with all policies.
  • Read your student SGU handbook.
Appendix A: Pre-Midterm Objectives


Medical Terminology & Imaging

  1. Define the terms anatomy and physiology.
  2. Describe the anatomical position and the orientation of the body parts in this position.
    1. Describe the various regions of the body and their relationship to one another.
    2. List and describe the directional terms used to locate body structures.
  3. Define the anatomical planes and sections as well as the axis of movements.
  4. Describe the boundaries, subdivisions (where applicable*) and general contents of the following major body cavities: cranial, vertebral, thoracic* and abdominopelvic*. a) Discuss the membranes that line the major body cavities.
  5. Describe the principles and importance of the following medical imaging procedures. a) Radiography (X-ray)
    1. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
    2. Computed Tomography (CT)
    3. Ultrasound
    4. Endoscopy
    5. Angiography
    6. Positron Emission Tomography
  6. Identify normal anatomical structures in radiographs, magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, ultrasound and angiography.
    1. Recognize the different planes and sections used in imaging.

Cell Physiology

  1. Identify and describe the three main parts of the cell.
  2. Describe the basic structure and function of the cytoplasm; cytosol and the following organelles: centrosome, ribosome, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi complex, lysosome, mitochondria, and nucleus.
  3. Describe the composition and function of the plasma cell membrane.
    1. Explain the concepts of membrane fluidity and permeability.
    2. Explain the concept of concentration and electrical gradients and their contribution to the formation of electrochemical gradients.
    3. Describe the structure and function of the following cell specializations: cilia and flagella 4. Describe the various types of transport across the cell membrane.
  4. Describe the passive processes of simple and facilitated diffusion in contrast to active transport processes
  5. Define and describe osmosis and osmotic pressure.
  6. Describe the types (2) and mechanisms (3 – endocytosis) of vesicular transport.

Basic Tissues

Describe the general structure, classification, histological characteristics, location, and functions of the four major categories of tissues.

  1. Epithelial tissue
    1. Describe the structure and functions of the five main types of cell junctions.
    2. Describe the different apical modifications of epithelial cells.
      1. Include function and typical locations
    3. Describe the structure and function of glands.
    4. Compare endocrine and exocrine glands.
    5. Describe the structural and functional classification of exocrine glands.
  2. Connective tissue
    1. Compare and contrast embryonic, proper, and specialized types of connective tissue.
    2. List and describe the subclassifications under each and their function.
    3. Identify the different types of connective tissue on histological imaging.
    4. List the various locations of the different types of connective tissue.
  3. Muscle tissue
    1. Compare and contrast the three main types of muscle.
    2. Describe the general and specific functions of each type of muscle
    3. Identify the different types of muscle on histological imaging.
    4. List the various locations of the different types of muscle tissue.
  4. Nervous tissue
    1. Describe the general organization of the nervous system.
      1. List and describe the general function of the divisions of the PNS.
      2. List and describe the general function of the subdivisions of the PNS.
    2. Describe, in detail, the structure of a neuron.
      1. Describe the histology and morphology of the nerve cell.
      2. Describe the important organelles found in the neuron and their function.

Excitable Tissue

  1. Describe the histologic morphology of the nerve cell.
  2. Describe the various types of ion channels and their role in diffusion and maintaining equilibrium potentials.
  3. Define resting membrane potential and explain the ionic basis and factors for this potential.
  4. Explain the concept and components of signal transmission at synapses.
    1. Define presynaptic neuron, postsynaptic cell and neuron, effector cell
    2. Define and explain axodendritic, axosomatic and axo-axonal
  5. Explain the events of signal transmission at electrical and chemical synapses.
    1. Contrast the generation and conduction of graded potentials (EPSP and IPSP) with those of action potentials.
  6. Explain graded potentials and their role in overall signal transmission.
    1. Explain the concept of hyperpolarization and depolarization graded potentials.
    2. Define the terms excitatory and inhibitory post-synaptic potentials.
    3. Describe the ionic basis of EPSP and IPSP
      1. Describe difference between ionotropic and metabotropic neurotransmitter receptors.
    4. Explain the concept of summation.
      1. Explain spatial and temporal summation
      2. Predict possible outcomes.
  7. Define and describe the ionic events involved in an action potential.
    1. Define the terms subthreshold, threshold and suprathreshold stimuli.
    2. Describe the events within the phases: depolarization, repolarization, after-repolarization and refractory periods.
    3. Define the all-or-nothing principle.
    4. Explain the process of propagation of action potentials
      1. Explain the types of propagation ii. Discuss the factors that can affect the speed of this process.

Muscle Physiology

  1. Compare the three types of muscle tissue; structure, function, location and special features.
  2. List and explain the properties and functions of muscular tissue
  3. Explain the gross and histologic structure of skeletal muscle tissue.
    1. Describe the connective tissue components, vascular and nervous supply.
      1. Define and explain the role of tendons and aponeuroses
    2. Explain the structural organization of skeletal muscle (whole muscle to myofilament)
    3. Describe the microscopic arrangement of the intracellular components
    4. Describe the various types of proteins (3) found in the cell
  4. Identify and describe the components of the neuromuscular junction
  5. Explain the steps involved in excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal muscle
    1. List in sequence the steps involved in neuromuscular transmission in skeletal muscle
    2. Outline and explain the chemical and mechanical steps in the contraction cycle
    3. Explain how this cycle results in shortening of the muscle (sarcomere structure)
    4. Describe the roles of the sarcolemma, transverse tubules, sarcoplasmic reticulum, thin filaments, and calcium ions
  6. Outline the steps involved in the sliding filament theory for muscle contraction
  7. Explain the concept of length-tension relationship.
  8. Briefly compare the general features of slow oxidative, fast oxidative-glycolytic, and fast glycolytic muscle fiber types.
  9. Describe the main histological, structural, and functional characteristics of cardiac muscle.
  10. Describe the main histological, structural, and functional characteristics of smooth muscle
    1. Outline how smooth muscle contracts compared to skeletal muscle

Introduction to Human Development

  1. List the sequence of events that occur during pregnancy
  2. Differentiate between embryological development and fetal development. 3. Describe the major events that occur during the first week of development.
    1. Describe capacitation and the pathway of sperm through the female reproductive tract.
    2. Describe the major events occurring during fertilization, cleavage, blastocyst formation, and implantation.
  1. Describe the major events that occur during the second week of development.
    1. Identify syncytiotrophoblast and cytotrophoblast cells and describe their functions.
    2. Describe the development of the bilaminar disc.
    3. Describe the development, structure and function of the amnion, yolk sac, and extraembryonic coelom, and chorion
  2. Describe the major events that occur during the third week of development.
    1. Describe gastrulation and the formation of the three primary germ layers.
    2. List the three primary germ layers and structures produced by the each
    3. Describe the development, structure and function of somites.
    4. Describe the development of the intraembryonic coelom
  3. Describe the major events that occur during the fourth week of development.
    1. Define the term organogenesis.
    2. Describe the head and tail folding of the embryo
    3. Describe the lateral folding of the embryo.
  4. Discuss development of the embryo from the fifth week through eighth week.
  5. Describe the major events of the fetal period. 

Skeletal System

Overview and Axial Skeleton

  1. List the tissues found in the skeletal system
  2. Describe the two subdivisions of the skeletal system.
  3. Describe how bones are classified (based on shape and/or location) and list examples.
  4. Define the following terms: fissure, foramen, fossa, sulcus, meatus, condyle, facet, head, crest, epicondyle, spinous process, trochanter, tubercle and tuberosity.
  5. Identify and describe features of the cranial and facial bones of the skull:
    1. CRANIAL: Frontal, Parietal, Temporal, Occipital, Sphenoid, Ethmoid
    2. FACIAL: Nasal, Lacrimal, Palatine, Inferior nasal conchae, Vomer, Maxilla, Zygomatic, Mandible
  6. Define and identify general features of the skull
    1. Cranial sutures, paranasal sinuses, fissures, foramen, meatuses and processes 7. Identify and describe the general structure and regions of the vertebral column
      1. Normal curvatures of the spine
      2. Key features of all vertebrae
      3. Key features specific to typical vertebrae for each region.
  7. Describe the importance of intervertebral discs.
  8. Identify the various parts of the sternum and ribs.
  9. Briefly describe the development of the skeletal system.
    1. Describe the development and differentiation of somites.
    2. Define and describe the musculoskeletal derivatives of the following: dermatome, myotome and sclerotome.

Appendicular Skeleton & Joints

  1. Identify the bones of the pectoral girdle.
    1. Identify the surface markings and articulation of the clavicle and scapula.
  2. Identify the bones of the upper limb.
    1. Humerus, Ulna, Radius, Carpal bones, Metacarpals, Phalanges
  3. Identify the bones of the pelvic girdle. Identify the surface markings and articulation of the ilium, ischium, and pubis.
  4. Identify the following bones of the lower limb
    1. Femur, Tibia, Fibula, Tarsal bones, Metatarsals, Phalanges
  5. Explain the structural and functional classification of joints.
  6. List and describe the two types of fibrous joints
    1. Give examples of where they are found in the body.
  7. List and describe the two types of cartilaginous joints
    1. Give examples of where they are found in the body.
  8. Describe the structure of synovial joints.
    1. Explain the typical blood and nerve supply to synovial joints.
    2. Explain the importance of bursae and tendon sheaths.
  9. List and describe the six types of synovial joints
    1. Give examples of their locations in the body
    2. List and describe the types of movements that occur at each
  10. Describe the anatomical components, joint classification and movements that occur at each of the following joints
    1. Shoulder, elbow, hip, and knee joints.

Muscular System

Overview & Head and Neck

  1. List the tissues found within the muscular system
  2. Briefly describe the development of muscle tissue.
    1. Describe the embryological origins of muscle tissue
    2. Review myotome, dermatome and sclerotome.
  3. Describe the relationship between the muscular and skeletal systems in producing body movement.
  4. Define the following terms:
    1. Origin and insertion
    2. Lever, fulcrum and load.
    3. Prime mover/agonist, antagonist and synergist.
  5. Describe the different fascicle arrangements of muscles.
  6. Explain the naming criterion (7) for muscles.
  7. Identify the muscles (+ describe the overall actions) responsible for the following movements: a) Mastication
    1. Eye movements
    2. Facial expression:
      1.  Scalp/Forehead: Frown, Surprise
      2. Eyelids: Open, Close
      3. Mouth: Open, Close/Pucker, Raise, Smile, Lower, Pout, Grimace, Blow
    3.  Tongue Movement e) Deglutition and Speech
      1. List the muscles from each group and give general actions
    4. General movements of the head

Back, Upper Limb & Thorax

  1. Identify the muscles in the following back muscle groups and describe their overall action on the vertebral column: a) Splenius group
    1. Erector Spinae group
    2. Transversospinales group
    3. Scalene group
  2. Identify the muscles of the thorax that act on the pectoral girdle and describe their action: a) Anterior & Posterior
  3. Identify the muscles of the thorax/shoulder that act on the upper limb and describe their action: ​​​​​​​
    1. Axial b) Scapular
  4. Identify and describe the overall function of the anatomical muscle compartments in the arm
    1. List and identify the muscles found within each compartment
    2. Describe the main action of the muscles within each compartment
  5. Identify and describe the overall function of the anatomical muscle compartments in the forearm
    1. List and identify the muscles found within each compartment
    2. Describe the main action of the muscles within each compartment
  6. Identify and describe the overall function of the intrinsic muscle groups in the hand
    1. Thenar, hypothenar and intermediate (lumbricals and interossei) muscle groups.
    2. List and identify the muscles found within each muscle group See complete list of muscles to be covered in Appendix B

Abdomen, Pelvis and Lower Limb

  1. Identify and describe the actions of the following muscles of the abdomen and thorax.
    1. Rectus Abdominis
    2. Quadratus Lumborum
    3. External and Internal Oblique
    4. Diaphragm
    5. Transverse Abdominis\External & Internal Intercostals
    6. State which muscles protect abdominal viscera and/or assist in breathing
  2. Identify the muscles of the pelvic and gluteal regions that act on the hip and describe their actions.
  3. Identify and describe the overall function of the anatomical muscle compartments in the thigh
    1. List and identify the muscles found within each compartment
    2. Describe the action of the muscles within each compartment
  4. Identify and describe the overall function of the anatomical muscle compartments in the leg
    1. List and identify the muscles found within each compartment
    2. Describe the action of the muscles within each compartment
  5. Identify and describe the overall function of the intrinsic muscle groups in the foot
    1. Dorsal and plantar muscle groups.
    2. List and identify the muscles found within each muscle group See complete list of muscles to be covered in Appendix B
Appendix B: Muscle List

Students are responsible for covering the following Muscles



Temporalis, Masseter, Medial and Lateral Pterygoid


Recti (lateral, medial, superior, inferior), Obliques (superior, inferior)






Occipitofrontalis, Corrugator supercilia

Obicularis oculi, Levator palpebrae superioris

Obicularis oris, Zygomaticus major & minor, Levator labii superioris, Levator anguli oris, Risorius, Buccinator, Depressor anguli oris, Depressor labii inferioris, Mentalis, Platysma

Tongue Movement

Genioglossus, Styloglossus, Hyoglossus, Palatoglossus

Deglutition & Speech

Suprahyoid: Digastric, Stylohyoid, Mylohyoid, Geniohyoid

Infrahyoid: Omohyoid, Sternohyoid, Sternothyroid, Thyrohyoid

Head Movement

Sternocleidomastoid, Semispinalis capitis, Splenius capitis, Longissimus capitis, Spinalis capitis



S. capitis, S. cervicis


Iliocostalis cervicis, thoracis and lumborum

Longissimus capitis, cervicis and thoracis Spinalis capitis, cervicis and thoracis


Semispinalis capitis, colli and thoracis Multifidus, Rotatores


Scalene anterior, medius and posterior




Subclavius, Pectoralis minor, Serratus anterior

Trapezius, Levator Scapulae, Rhomboid major, Rhomboid minor



Pectoralis major, Latissimus dorsi, Deltoid, Subscapularis, Supraspinatus, Infraspinatus, Teres major, Teres minor, Coracobrachialis


Biceps Brachii, Brachialis, Brachioradialis, Triceps brachii


Pronator teres, Pronator quadratus, Supinator, Flexor carpi radialis, Palmaris longus, Flexor carpi ulnaris, Flexor digitorum superficialis, Flexor pollicis longus, Flexor digitorum profundus, Extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis, Extensor digitorum, Extensor digiti minimi, Extensor carpi ulnaris, Abductor pollicis longus, Extensor pollicis longus and brevis, Extensor indicis


Abductor pollicis brevis, Opponens pollicis, Flexor pollicis brevis, Adductor pollicis,

Abductor digiti minimi, Flexor digiti minimi brevis, Opponens digiti minimi, Lumbricals, Palmar interossei, Dorsal interossei


  1. Diaphragm
  2. External Intercostals
  3. Internal Intercostals
  4. Rectus Abdominis
  5. External and Internal Oblique
  6. Transverse Abdominis
  7. Quadratus Lumborum



Levator ani: Pubococcygeus, Puborectalis, Iliococcygeus Ischiococcygeus


Iliopsoas: Iliacus, Psoas major; Gluteus maximus, medius and minimus; Tensor fasciae latae, Piriformis, Obturator internus and externus, Superior and Inferior Gemellus, Quadrator femoris


Adductor longus, brevis and magnus; Pectineus, Gracilis, Quadriceps femoris: Rectus femoris, Vastus lateralis, medialis and intermedius; Sartorius, Hamstrings: Biceps femoris, Semitendinosus, Semimembranosus,


Tibialis anterior and posterior, Extensor hallucis longus, Extensor digitorum longus,

Fibularis tertius, longus and brevis; Triceps surae: Gastrocnemius, Soleus, Plantaris; Popliteus, Flexor digitorum longus, Flexor hallucis longus


Extensor hallucis brevis, Extensor digitorum brevis, Abductor hallucis, Flexor digitorum brevis, Abductor digiti minimi, Quadratus plantae, Lumbricals, Flexor hallucis brevis, Adductor hallucis, Flexor digiti minimi brevis, Dorsal interossei, Plantar interossei

Appendix C: Post-Midterm Objectives

Respiratory System Anatomy

  1. List the organs of the respiratory system.
    1. Differentiate between the upper and lower respiratory system.
    2. Differentiate between the conducting and respiratory zones of the respiratory system.
  2. Describe the gross anatomy and functions of the nose.
    1. Describe the nasal cavity.
    2. Describe the components of the nasal septum.
    3. Identify and describe the function of the nasal conchae and choanae.
    4. Describe the paranasal sinuses and their drainage.
  3. Describe the gross anatomy and function of the pharynx.
  4. Describe the gross anatomy and function of the larynx.
    1. List the cartilages of the larynx.
    2. Identify the epiglottis, the glottis and rima glottis.
  5. Describe the structures involved in voice production.
    1. Identify the vestibular and vocal folds
    2. Identify and describe the actions of the muscles of the larynx.
    3. Describe how they interact to produce phonation.
  6. Describe the gross anatomy and function of the trachea.
  7. Outline the branching of the bronchial tree and respiratory zone and describe the anatomic changes that occur as this branching progresses.
  8. Briefly describe respiratory epithelium and the changes of epithelium within the entire respiratory system.
  9. Describe the gross anatomy of the lung and pleural membranes.
    1. Discuss the difference between lobes, lobules, and bronchopulmonary segments.
    2.  List the fissures of the lungs.
    3. Discuss the difference between the parietal and visceral pleura.
  10. Describe the structure of alveolar sacs and individual alveoli.
    1. List the cells of alveoli and their function.
    2. Describe the layers of the respiratory membrane.
  11. Describe the blood supply of the lung tissue.
  12. Briefly discuss the development of the respiratory system
    1. List the types of tissues found in the respiratory system and give the embryologic origin(s)
    2. Outline the main steps in the formation of the respiratory system
      1. Describe the major events in the development of the respiratory system.
      2. Describe the stages of respiratory system development.


  1. Define pulmonary ventilation, external and internal respiration.
  2. Describe the mechanics of breathing.
    1. Relate Boyle’s Law to the events of inspiration and expiration.
    2. List the muscles that assist with inspiration.
    3. Describe the changes in intrapleural and alveolar pressure during inspiration and expiration.
  3. Briefly discuss the effects of the following on ventilation.
    1. Surface tension
    2. Lung compliance
    3. Airway resistance
  4. Define and compare the various lung volumes and capacities.
  5. Relate Dalton’s and Henry’s Laws to the events of external and internal respiration.
    1. Describe the process of gas exchange in the lungs and tissues.
  6. Explain how oxygen is transported in the blood.
    1. Compare the relative amounts of O2 carried bound to hemoglobin with that carried in the dissolved form.
    2. Explain the role of hemoglobin and its relationship with pO₂.
    3. Using an oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve, show the relationships between oxygen partial pressure, hemoglobin saturation, and blood oxygen content.
    4. Describe how the shape of the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve influences the uptake and delivery of oxygen.
    5. Show how the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve is affected by changes in blood temperature, pH, PCO2, and 2,3-DPG,
  7. Explain how carbon dioxide is transported in the blood.
    1. Describe the three main forms for which carbon dioxide is transported in the blood.
  8. Describe the regulation and control of respiration.
    1. Briefly outline the areas of the brainstem that control breathing.
    2. Explain the cortical influences on breathing.
    3. List the anatomical location of central and peripheral chemoreceptors and their role in the regulation of breathing.
    4. List the remaining influences on breathing.

Cardiovascular System Anatomy

  1. Describe the location, size and orientation of the heart.
  2. Describe the structure of the pericardium and the layers of the heart wall.
    1. Briefly describe the structure and function of the fibrous skeleton.
  3. Describe, in detail, the features of all of the chambers of the heart.
    1. Include surface markings and internal features within each chamber.
    2. Describe the location, structure and function of the valves of the heart.
  4. Describe the flow of blood through the chambers of the heart.
    1. Name and locate the veins (SVC, IVC, coronary sinus) that carry blood back to the atria of the heart. Explain their role.
    2. Name and locate the arteries (pulmonary trunk and aorta) that carry blood away from the ventricles of the heart. Explain their role.
  5. Briefly describe the systemic and pulmonary circulations and outline the vessels involved.
  6. Describe the coronary circulation: outline the path of blood through this circulation, including the relevant arteries and veins (coronary arteries, veins and sinuses).
  7. Define and describe the basic structure of blood vessels.
    1. Describe the structural and functional differences between arteries and veins.
    2. Outline, in detail, the changes in the structure of the blood vessels throughout the circulatory system.
      1. Compare & contrast the structure and functions of arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules and veins.
      2. Compare & contrast elastic and muscular arteries. Give examples iii) Describe the location, structure and functions of the three types of capillaries
  8. Identify the four divisions of the aorta.
  9. Identify and locate the following systemic arterial vessels, their main branches and describe the main region supplied:
    1. Arch of the aorta
    2. Thoracic aorta
    3. Abdominal aorta
    4. Head and neck
    5. Upper limb
    6. Lower limb
  10. Identify the following venous vessels in the systemic circulation:
    1. Head and neck
    2. Upper Limb
    3. Thorax
    4. Abdomen
    5. Lower Limb
  11. Briefly review the structural and functional characteristic of cardiac muscle tissue.
  12. Discuss the development of the heart
    See complete list of blood vessels to be covered in Appendix D
  13. Briefly outline the development of the heart
    1. List the types of tissues found in the heart and give the embryologic origin(s)
    2. Outline the main steps in heart formation
    3. Discuss the importance of the foramen ovale and ductus arteriosus in utero


  1. Outline the autorhythmic fibers of the conduction system and describe the location of these fibers within the heart walls.
    1. Draw and discuss the pacemaker potential.
    2. Beginning in the SA node, outline the normal sequence of the cardiac activation (depolarization) through the +conducting system
  2. Outline the sequence of events for an action potential in a ventricular contractile cell.
    1. Describe how ionic currents contribute to the phases of the cardiac action potential.
    2. Explain what accounts for the long duration of the cardiac action potential and the resultant long refractory period.
    3. Explain the advantage of the long plateau of the cardiac action potential and refractory period
  3. Excitation-contraction coupling in cardiac muscle.
    1. Explain how the stimulation of contraction of cardiac muscle differs from that of skeletal
    2. Outline the role of calcium in the control of contraction of cardiac muscle
  4. Define electrocardiogram, depolarization and repolarization.
  5. Trace a typical ECG, label and discuss each wave or complex in relation to the electrical state of the heart
    1. Discuss the P-Q and Q-T intervals.
    2. Discuss the S-T segment.
  6. Discuss the timing and route of an action potential through the conduction system and myocardium.
    1. Define the terms systole and diastole.
    2. Relate the ECG waves to the contractile activity of the myocardium
  7. Describe the pressure and volume changes that occur during the cardiac cycle.
    1. Use a diagram to label the phases and events of the cardiac cycle in relation to ECG activity, contractile activity, pressure-volume changes, and valve movement
    2. Identify and describe the following phases of the cardiac cycle: isovolumetric contraction, ejection, isovolumetric relaxation, ventricular filling and atrial contraction.
    3. Define the heart sounds S1 and S2
      1. Describe the event that produces the sound.
      2. Discuss the timing of the cardiac cycle at which they occur.
      3. Describe the auscultation sites of the heart valves.
  8. Define cardiac output, heart rate and stroke volume.
    1. Define and discuss the factors that regulate stroke volume (SV).
      1. Define the Frank-Starling Law and how it applies to preload.
      2. Discuss the result of changes in heart rate and venous return on EDV (and SV).
      3.  Discuss how myocardial contractility can be modified, including the role of the ANS.
      4. List the factors that can increase afterload and the effect on stroke volume.
  9. Outline the factors that regulate heart rate.
    1. State the location of the cardiovascular center (CVC).
    2. List the location and describe the role of the sensory receptors that provide input to the CVC
      1. List the main types of receptors and describe their action
    3. Briefly describe the roles of hormones on heart rate
  10. Discus blood pressure and how it changes throughout the body
    1. Define blood pressure, systolic and diastolic blood pressure
      1. Describe the general changes as you progress through the circulatory system.
    2. Discuss the concept of vascular resistance and the factors that affect it.
    3. Define venous return and briefly discuss the main mechanisms involved.
    4. Briefly outline how velocity of blood flow changes throughout the circulatory system.
  11. Define capillary exchange and briefly discuss the three main mechanisms
  12.  Explain the factors that regulate blood flow.
    1. Discuss the role of the cardiovascular center in regulating blood flow
      1. Name the part of the CVC responsible for acting on blood vessels
    2. Describe the role of receptors from the hypothalamus. Give an example  Discuss the baroreceptor reflex
    3. List the location(s) and actions of the main receptors
  13. List the name, source and functions of the hormones that affect blood pressure
  14. Explain the concept of autoregulation with respect to blood flow and list the types of stimuli.
  15. Define the terms: pulse, tachycardia and bradycardia.
  16. Identify the vessels and location for taking peripheral pulses

Digestive System Anatomy

  1. List the organs that constitute the digestive tract/alimentary canal.
    1. List the accessory digestive organs.
  2. Identify the various functions of the digestive system.
  3. Discuss the structure and function of the layers that form the wall of the digestive tract.
  4. Describe the location structure and function of the Enteric nervous system (ENS)
    1. List the two divisions and describe their location.
    2. Name the three types of neurons in this system
      1. Discuss the roles of each type of neuron in the digestive tract.
  5. Briefly describe the general effect of the PNS and SNS on the ENS and GI tract.
  6. Describe and explain the significance of peritoneal and mesenteric extensions within the abdomen.
    1. List the five major peritoneal folds and their relationship to each other and the abdominal organs.
    2. Define the terms retroperitoneal and intraperitoneal and list the organs that belong in each category.
  7. Identify and describe the following structures of the mouth and oral cavity. *Explain function a) Lips, teeth*, gum, frenulum*
    1. Oral vestibule vs oral cavity and Fauces Palate*: Hard vs soft
  8. Arches: Palatoglossal vs palatopharyngeal, Uvula
  1. List the names, locations and general function of the tonsils in the mouth
  2. Describe the overall structure and function of the tongue
    1. Include discussion on the overall function of the extrinsic and intrinsic muscles.
  3. Discuss the general function, histologic composition and location of the three major salivary glands.
    1. Outline the main ducts and corresponding openings within the oral cavity.
  4. Review the regions of the pharynx (from the respiratory system) and its connection with the esophagus.
  5. Describe the location, macroscopic and microscopic structure of the esophagus.
    1. Describe the anatomical structure and function of the esophagus
    2. Briefly describe the histology and general function of the layers of the esophagus
    3. Locate the two esophageal sphincters and explain their significance.
  6. Describe the location, anatomy, histology and general functions, of the following organs. Include their spatial arrangement to each other within the abdomen and any *specialized features.
    1. Stomach*
      1. Describe the main regions
      2. Discuss the layers of the wall
      3. Discuss the structure and function of any sphincters
    2. Small intestine*
      1. Describe the regions
      2. Discuss the layers of the wall and features unique to the regions
    3. Large intestine*
      1. Describe the regions
      2. Discuss the layers of the wall and features unique to the regions
      3. Discuss the structure and function of any sphincters
    4. Rectum and Anal Canal
    5. Liver*
      1. Discuss the functional cells of the liver, the bile duct system and sinusoids.
      2. Compare and contrast the hepatic lobule, portal lobule and hepatic acinus.
      3.  Discuss the components of the portal triad.
    6. Gallbladder*
      1. Describe the parts
      2. Discuss the layers of the wall
      3. Describe the relationship of the gallbladder to the liver
      4. Pancreas*
        1. Describe the regions
        2. Compare and contrast the glandular portions
        3. Describe the relationship of the pancreas to the small intestine
  7. Outline the flow of bile from the liver and gallbladder into the small intestine.
  8. State the names, location and secretory products of the specialized cells found in the following organs: a) Stomach
    1. Small Intestine
    2. Large Intestine
    3. Pancreas
  9. Outline the blood supply to the organs of the digestive tract. Include the branches from the following arteries:
    1. Celiac Trunk
    2. Superior Mesenteric
    3. Inferior Mesenteric
  10. Describe the path of blood flow through the liver.
  11. Outline the venous drainage of the digestive system.
    1. Describe the major veins of the digestive system
    2. Describe the hepatic portal system and major veins involved

13. Briefly discuss the development of the digestive system

  1. List the types of tissues found in the digestive system and give the embryologic origin(s)
  2. Outline the main steps in digestive system formation
  3. Discuss briefly the foregut, midgut and hindgut, their derivatives and blood supply


  1. Review the various digestive processes
  2. Define digestion
    1. Discuss the process of mechanical and chemical digestion
    2. Define the term mastication and its role in digestion.
  3. Describe the physiological function of the components of saliva.
  4. Define and describe the three phases of deglutition.
  5. Describe the role of the stomach mucosa in mechanical and chemical digestion.
    1. Describe the motility of the stomach
    2. Review the source and function of mucus, hydrochloric acid, intrinsic factor, pepsinogen, gastric lipase and gastrin
  6. Discuss the composition of pancreatic juice and its role in the chemical digestion.
    1. Describe the function of pancreatic amylase, trypsin, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase, pancreatic lipase, ribonuclease and deoxyribonuclease.
  7. Discuss the role of bile in chemical digestion.
  8. Outline the various functions the liver provides within the digestive system.
  9. Describe the role of the small intestine mucosa in mechanical and chemical digestion.
    1. Describe the motility of the small intestine
    2. Review the source and function of maltase, sucrose, lactase, enterokinase, and peptidase.
    3. Outline how the end products of carbohydrates, protein and lipid digestion; electrolytes, vitamins, minerals and water are absorbed within the small intestine.
  10. Describe the role of large intestine mucosa in mechanical and chemical digestion.
    1. Describe the motility of the large intestine
    2. Describe the role of intestinal bacteria in digestion
    3. Outline the process of absorption and feces formation within the large intestine.
  11. Outline the three phases of digestion
    1. ​​​​​​​Describe the major hormones, neural and local components that govern these phases. 
Appendix D: Blood Vessel List

Students are responsible for covering the following Blood Vessels






Right and Left coronary



Coronary Sinus





Brachiocephalic trunk

Right and left common carotid






Right and left subclavian







Common carotid

External and internal carotids


i) ii)

Internal and external jugular Subclavian












Superior Vena Cava











Posterior intercostal


Superior phrenic


i) ii) iii)




Accessory hemiazygos ocephalic










Inferior phrenic


Celiac trunk

Superior mesenteric

Suprarenal and renal


Inferior mesenteric

Common, external and internal iliac


i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) viii)

Internal and external iliac

Common iliac


Suprarenal and renal



Inferior phrenic

Inferior vena cava













Superficial and deep palmar arches









i) Radial ii) Ulnar iii) Brachial iv) Axillary


i) Median antebrachial ii) Basilic iii) Cephalic

iv)          Median cubital















Common Iliac

Internal Iliac

External iliac



Anterior and posterior tibial


Dorsalis pedis

Medial and Lateral plantar

Plantar arch








  1. Anterior and posterior tibial
  2. Popliteal iii) Femoral

*External Iliac

  1. Great saphenous *Femoral
  2. Small saphenous


Appendix E: Course Schedule







Course Introduction



1. Medical Terminology & Imaging

Chp 1 (pgs. 1-4, 14-27)


2. Cell Physiology

Chp 3 (pgs. 64-91)


Quiz 1 Due





3. Basic Tissue

Chp 4 (pgs. 111-138, 140-148)

Chp 12 (pgs. 420-424); Chp 20 (740-743)


4. Excitable Tissue

Chp 12 (pgs 420-424, 430-442, 444-450, 458460)


5. Muscle Physiology I

Chp 10 (pgs. 305-324, 332-338, 341-342) Chp 20 (pg 742-743) 


Quiz 2 Due





6. Muscle Physiology II

See above


7. Introduction to Human


Chp 29 (pgs. 1160-1171, 1175-1179, 11981199)



Quiz 3 Due












8. Skeletal System: Axial Skeleton

Chp 7 (pgs. 202-236, 239-240)


9. Skeletal System: Appendicular

Skeleton & Joints

Chp 8 (pgs. 242-265)

Chp 9 (269-286, 288-298, 302-304)


10. Muscular System: Head & Neck

Chp 11 (pgs. 344-365)


Quiz 4 Due





11. Muscular System: Back, Upper

Limb & Thorax

Chp 11 (pgs. 375-397)


Lab 1: Musculoskeletal System



12. Muscular System: Abdomen,

Pelvis & Lower Limb

Chp 11 (pgs. 366-373, 398-414)


Quiz 5 Due





13. Respiratory System I

Chp 23 (pgs. 891-933)


Lab 2: Musculoskeletal System



14. Respiratory System II

See above


Quiz 6 Due





Public Holiday - Independence Day









15. Respiratory System III

See above


16. Cardiovascular System I; Buzz 1

Chp 20 (pgs. 727-756, 759-760) 

Chp 21 (pgs. 771-792, 796-832, 834-838)


17. Cardiovascular System II


Quiz 7 Due






18.Cardiovascular System III

See above


Lab 3: Respiratory Systems



19. Cardiovascular System IV

See above


Quiz 8 Due






20. Digestive System I

Chp 24 (pgs. 941-980, 982-991)

Chp 21 (pgs. 809-813, 833-834)


Lab 4: Cardiovascular System



21.Digestive System II

See above


Quiz 9 Due














22. Digestive System III

See above


23.Digestive System IV


Public Holiday - Good Friday


Quiz 10 Due






Public Holiday - Good Friday


Lab 5: Digestive System




Quiz 11 Due



















Public Holiday - Independence Day









School of Arts and Sciences Master Syllabi — Info for All Sections

Plagiarism Policy

Academic Integrity

The St. George’s University Student Manual (2019/2020) states as follows:

Plagiarism is regarded as a cardinal offense in academia because it constitutes theft of the work of someone else, which is then purported as the original work of the plagiarist. Plagiarism draws into disrepute the credibility of the Institution, its faculty, and students; therefore, it is not tolerated” (p. 48).

Plagiarism also includes the unintentional copying or false accreditation of work, so double check your assignments BEFORE you hand them in.

Be sure to do good, honest work, credit your sources and reference accordingly and adhere to the University’s Honor Code. Plagiarism and cheating will be dealt with very seriously following the university’s policies on Plagiarism as outlined in the Student Manual.

Your work may be subject to submission to plagiarism detection software, submission to this system means that your work automatically becomes part of that database and can be compared with the work of your classmates.

Attendance Requirement

The St. George’s University Student Manual (2019/2020) states as follows:

Students are expected to attend all classes and or clinical rotations for which they have registered. Although attendance may not be recorded at every academic activity, attendance may be taken randomly. Students’ absence may adversely affect their academic status as specified in the grading policy. If absence from individual classes, examinations, and activities, or from the University itself is anticipated, or occurs spontaneously due to illness or other extenuating circumstances, proper notification procedures must be followed. A particular course may define additional policies regarding specific attendance or participation” (p. 9).

Examination Attendance

The St. George’s University Student Manual (2019/2020) states as follows:

All matriculated students are expected to attend all assigned academic activities for each course currently registered. Medical excuses will be based on self-reporting by students. Students who feel they are too sick to take an examination or other required activity on a specific day must submit the online SAS medical excuse, which is available on Carenage. Students are only allowed two such excuses a year. Upon consultation with the Director of University Health Service, the third excuse will result in a mandatory medical leave of absence. The policies regarding make-up examinations are at the option of the Course Director” (p.46).

For additional specific examination policies and procedures, refer to the St. George’s University Student Manual (2019/2020), pages 31 through 37.

Student Accessibility and Accommodation Services Policy

The St. George’s University Student Manual (2019/2020) states as follows:

A student with a disability or disabling condition that affects one or more major life activities, who would like to request an accommodation, must submit a completed application form and supporting documentation to the Student Accessibility and Accommodation Services (SAAS) located in the Dean of Students Office. It is highly recommended that students applying for accommodations do so at least one month before classes begin to allow for a more efficient and timely consideration of the request. If a fully completed application is not submitted in a timely fashion, an eligibility determination may not be made, and accommodations, where applicable, may not be granted prior to the commencement of classes and/or examinations” (p. 8).


It is the responsibility of the student to read and understand the policies, laws, rules and procedures that while they could affect your grade for a course, have not been specifically outlined in the course syllabus. These are contained in the St. George’s University Student Manual.