Veterinary Histology & Embryology

Faculty and Staff Information

Dr. Sunil K Gupta, Professor & Course Director
E-mail: Phone: 1-473-2315180
Mobile / WhatsApp: 1-473-4589371

Dr. Rhea St. louis, Instructor

Course Location

Lecture: David Brown (Alumni) lecture Hall.

Labs: Charter Hall Basement (near SGU Mail room)

Online location—Sakai resources, Panopto online video, Zoom online classroom, Assignments and ExamSoft

Required Resources

Course notes and power points on Sakai resources, laptop specs like functional microphone, camera, etc.)

Recommended Resources
  • Textbook of Veterinary Histology. Dellmann, H.D. and Eurell, J.
  • Textbook of Veterinary Anatomy. 3rd Edition, Dyce, Sack and Wensing
  • Langman’s Medical Embryology by T. W. Sadler
  • Color Atlas of Veterinary Histology. Bacha, W.J. and Bacha, L.M
  1. Students with disabilities who need accommodations should contact Student Accessibility and Accommodations Services (SAAS), located in the Dean of Students Office.
  2. Information can be found at
Other Requirements

Prerequisite and/or co-requisite courses: DVM term 1 courses

Course Rationale

The course begins with the study of cell structure and progresses through the basic tissues to the study of the organ systems. The histology not only provides the microscopic study of the minute details of the body but also the correlation between structure and function. Knowledge of the normal structure is necessary to understand the study of abnormal (pathology), which deals with the alteration in the structure and function of the body tissues/organs caused by the disease process. Course also includes the sequence of normal development from gametogenesis and fertilization to the establishment of body form and the development of the fetal membranes, placentas, and various organ systems. Important developmental anomalies occurring in the domestic species, and their various mechanisms leading to these, will be discussed.

Course Goals

The histology provides the microscopic details of the structure of the body and its correlation with function as well as their alteration in the process of development of disease. Embryology correlates between normal development and developmental anomalies.

Course Learning Outcomes

Students should be able to:

  1. Understand the microscopic structure of various cells, tissues and organs of the body.
  2. Understand the correlation between structure and function
  3. Identify various cells, tissues, and organ of the body
  4. To be able to understand the general and systemic development.
  5. To be able to understand the developmental anomalies.
Alignment of Course Learning Outcomes with Program Learning Outcomes


Course learning outcomes

Program learning outcomes


Understand the microscopic structure of various cells, tissues, and organs of the body.

PLO- 01 Recall, understand, and adequately utilize multidisciplinary knowledge of basic structures and functions of healthy animals.


Understand the correlation between structure and function

PLO- 01 Recall, understand, and adequately utilize multidisciplinary knowledge of basic structures and functions of healthy animals.

PLO 02 Analyze homeostasis and disturbances of basic structures and functions of healthy animals.


Identify various cells, tissues, and organ of the body.

PLO- 01 Recall, understand, and adequately utilize multidisciplinary knowledge of basic structures and functions of healthy animals.


To be able to understand the general and systemic development.

PLO- 01 Recall, understand, and adequately utilize multidisciplinary knowledge of basic structures and functions of healthy animals.


To be able to understand the developmental anomalies.

PLO- 01 Recall, understand, and adequately utilize multidisciplinary knowledge of basic structures and functions of healthy animals.

PLO 02 Analyze homeostasis and disturbances of basic structures and functions of healthy animals.

Course Schedule

Week / dates

Topic and material covered


  1. Course introduction, Cytology: cell membrane and nucleus
  2. Cell organelles
  3. Cytoskeleton, cell inclusions, Intercellular junctions & specialization of cell surfaces

Lab.1 Study of microscope, staining and artifacts


  1. Epithelium
  2. Glands
  3. Connective tissue cells, fiber, and matrix
  4. Connective tissue types, Cartilage
  5. Bone, development, and repair
  6. Muscular tissue

Lab. 2 Epithelium


  1. Nervous tissue: neuron and synapses
  2. Neuroglia & Peripheral nerve
  3. Ganglia, Nerve endings & CNS
  4. Cardiovascular system: heart and blood vessels

Lab. 3 Glands and Connective tissue


  1. Capillaries and lymph vessels
  2. Blood and hemopoiesis
  3. Immune system, Lymph nodes 17.Thymus, spleen,

Lab. 4 Cartilage, bone and muscles


  1. Tonsils, Hemal node, cloacal bursa
  2. Respiratory system, Air conducting area
  3. Gas exchange area, Avian respiratory system
  4. Introduction of embryology and gametogenesis

Lab. 5 Nervous system and blood vessels


  1. Quiz-1 (Lecture 1-15)
  2. Ovulation, Fertilization, and cleavage
  3. Formation of germ layers
  4. Body folding, fetal membranes, and Implantation
  5. Comparative placentation & Teratology

Lab. 6 Blood


  1. Development of blood vessels, blood, and heart
  2. Cardiac abnormalities, embryonic circulations, aortic arches
  3. Development of veins, fetal circulation, and abnormalities
  4. Development of Musculoskeletal and abnormalities
  5. Midterm Review

Lab. 7 Lymphatic and Respiratory system


MID TERM EXAMINATION (Lecture 1-30 & Lab 1-7)


  1. Digestive system: Oral cavity and tongue
  2. Teeth, salivary gland, and esophagus
  3. Ruminant and glandular stomach
  4. Small and large intestine, Anal canal, and anal sacs
  5. Liver
  6. Pancreas, Avian digestive system

Lab. 8 Digestive system I


38. Urinary system, kidney 39.Ureter, urinary bladder, and testis

  1. Epididymis, ductus deferens, accessory sex glands, and urethra
  2. Female reproductive, ovary

Lab 9 Digestive system II


  1. Uterine tube, uterus, vagina, and avian urogenital system
  2. Endocrine, hypophysis, and pineal gland
  3. Thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, and pancreas
  4. Skin, hair, and glands
  5. Mammary gland, hoof, and avian integument

Lab 10 Digestive system III


  1. Eye
  2. Ear
  3. Development of digestive tube
  4. Development of liver, pancreas and abnormalities

Lab.11 Urinary and Male genital system


  1. QUIZ-2 (Lecture 32-44)
  2. Development of respiratory system
  3. Development of Urinary system
  4. Development of Genital system
  5. Development of Neural tube and spinal cords

Lab.12 Male and female genital system


  1. Development of brain & endocrine
  2. Development of eye
  3. Development of pharynx, tongue, and teeth

Lab.13 Endocrine and Integument


  1. Development of Ear & face, teratology
  2. Final exam review

Lab. 14 Sense organs


FINAL EXAMINATION (Lecture 32-60 & Lab 8-14)

Grading and Assessment Policy
  • First Quiz (Lecture. no. 1 – 15) 21st February 2022: 25 points
  • Midterm Examination (Lect.1-30 & Lab.1-7) 7th March 2022 : 80 points
  • Second Quiz (Lecture. no. 32 – 44) 11th April 2022: 25 points
  • Final Examination (Lect.32-60 & Lab.8-14) 3rd May 2022 : 80 points
  • Lab Assignment: 15 points

Total: 225 point


















All questions in quizzes / exams are multiple choice on the ExamSoft.

A grade reduction of 5-10% will be applied to that exam if students do not observe the parameters during exams listed in the Assessment Policy for Students

Recommended Study Strategies

Students are strongly recommended to study on daily basis. Be very specific to all the structure, their location / functions.

Instructor's Expectations of the Student

The student is expected to read the required material before lecture / zoom session.

Professionalism Statement

Students are expected to conduct themselves with integrity, dignity, and courtesy as defined in the Code of Conduct of the University.

Attendance/Participation Policy

Students are expected to be available during the standard 8:30am-5:20pm AST school day, to attend, engage with in-person/online content, and participate in all classes and clinical rotations for which they have registered. Employment is not an excusable absence. Although attendance, engagement, and participation may not be recorded at every academic activity, attendance, engagement, and participation is graded for mandatory sessions. Students’ lack of attendance, engagement, and participation may adversely affect their academic status as specified in the grading policy.

Policy Regarding Missing Examinations and/or Failure of Submission of Assignments

Students who fail to attend an examination (Sakai quiz/test or Examsoft) or submit an assignment by the deadline without a valid reason (see student manual: SGUSVM POLICY ON AN EXCUSED ABSENCE (EA) FOR STUDENTS) will receive a score of “0” points for the examination. Students who have technical issues during the examination MUST inform the Course Director ( and IT ( OR OR call 1-631-665-8500 ext. 4444 (US, NU, International) OR 1-473-439-2000 ext. 4444 (Grenada), AND Dean of Students ( during the open period for the examination. Failure to do so immediately will result in the student receiving the highest score recorded at the time, but NOT being eligible to take a completion examination.

Scheduling of examinations (regular, re-sit, completion, comprehensive, or exemption) is at the discretion of the University. Completion exams will be scheduled within 7 days of the original exam date. Re-sit examination will be scheduled in the first week of the following term.

ExamSoft Policy

All students are responsible for knowing and complying with the University’s Code of Conduct and the guidelines. Students must read and then sign the Honor Code statement at the start of examinations to indicate that they will comply with the University Code of Conduct.

Prior to Exam Day

  1. Each student is required to have a laptop for the purpose of taking computer-based examinations (e-Exams) at SGU. Students must ensure that their laptops meet the current minimum system requirements prior to exam day:
  2. Examinees must use their MY SGU Member Center username and password to access the Custom Home Page ( created by ExamSoft for the University.
  3. Examinees are responsible for downloading and registering the latest version of Examplify on their laptop prior to exam day. Once Examplify has been successfully downloaded, examinees are strongly encouraged to familiarize themselves with the software by downloading and taking practice exams.
  4. Examinees are responsible for setting their laptop up for ExamMonitor prior to the exam (see links below).
  5. Examinees will be notified via MyCourses, of all exams related information. Email notifications will also be sent from ExamSoft Support to examinees, notifying them of examinations available for downloading.
  6. Examinees experiencing difficulties with their laptop are encouraged to visit the IT department for assistance prior to exam day. Examinees needing a laptop must visit the Office of Institutional Advancement (OIA) to request an exam loaner.
  7. Examinees should visit the following information to familiarize themselves with the online proctored exam format and set up their baseline photo.
    1. A Examsoft/ExamID quick guide for students (Please note that the current Examplify version is 2.3.8)
    2. The Examsoft student perspective video 30mins
    3. The Examsoft/ExamID FAQ
    4. Examsoft information page
    5. The general Reminders/Guidelines
Copyright Policy

The materials (such as slides, handouts and audio/video recordings) provided to students who are taking courses at St. George’s University (SGU) are the intellectual property of the Faculty and/or Administration of SGU. Students are free to use these materials solely for the purpose of group or individual study. Reproduction in whole or in part is prohibited.