In the DVM program, veterinary physiology is covered by two courses: ANPH512/DVM 1 and ANPH513/ DVM 2. Both courses focus on the fundamental mechanisms underlying the normal function of cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems of animals, commensurate with the requirements for a physician providing primary care to a variety of veterinary patients. Students will integrate the acquired knowledge about physiological functions of organ systems and learn to explain mechanisms of whole-body homeostasis. Emphasis is placed on introducing the pathophysiology of diseases, which are commonly seen in veterinary practice. The ANPH512 course covers the following organ systems: nerve & muscle, cardiovascular, hematology (erythron; hemostasis), gastrointestinal, respiratory, and renal physiology. This course also contains independent group work, in which students are exposed to clinical case studies and give short oral and written presentations. Students share responsibility for a collectively earned group grade and demonstrate professional behavior, including communication and teamwork skills.